Monday, September 30, 2019
New technology Ã¢â¬Å"The front porchÃ¢â¬ by Chester convey,Ã¢â¬ television destroying childhoodÃ¢â¬ by rose batched and, Ã¢â¬Å"on the fear of deathÃ¢â¬ by Elisabeth kibble-Ross. Those topics as authors has mentioned about how the way thing are now then past and how the way things compare to present. The modern world Is changing day by day and becoming more Innovative. The deferent things we use every day such as ours phones and cars and many more. The use of cell phone and cars keep connected with friends and family, but It has also Increased public rudeness.The old technology Is linked to the new technology. Without the old technology, the new technology wouldn't be found or exist. According to past, the first car ford model T was Invented In early sass's, without that being Invented the newer model would be found. Old technology was not as complex as newer technology. For example, when I was younger, I remember going out with my grandfather in his Ã¢â¬Å"Marti SuzukiÃ ¢â¬ which is an Indian model car back in 2002. Currently, I am now driving 2013 Toyota corolla.The differences between these two cars are great. The Marti Suzuki only had radio and air conditioning working only, compare to that car, the Toyota corolla has many feature such as Bluetooth, CD player, navigation and much more feature. Early 1900, the phone was to only used to be called people and now it is we have lots of option such as testing, playing games, video calling, and many more. Another example, when I was in India, I had phone called Monika. I only can call from that phone. That phone is limited to calling only.Currently, I have the Samsung galaxy so, and this phone as any option and feature such as testing, playing games, video calling, and many more. For instance, when I came to USA back in 2008, my parent gave me phone g on my birthday. That phone was slow and takes time to load things such as video, games, websites and etc. Compare to that phone, and I bought another phone in 2010. The I phone g was getting better because that phone loads everything faster than phone g. That how we can tell that the technology is getting better and better.The technology matter because if we didn't had computer, cars, phone or any another genealogy, we would able to talk with relatives, we would not able to drive, or we would not able find things or learn from computer. However, the deference between new technology and old technology Is great because without the old technology, the new technology wouldn't new exist. The old technology was the foundation for the new technology. We have world changing day by day and I predict that technology will continue grow and become more and more Innovative. Old tech vs. new By stationmaster compare to present.The modern world is changing day by day and becoming more innovative. The different things we use every day such as ours phones and cars and but it has also increased public rudeness. The old technology is linked to the new exist. According to past, the first car ford model T was invented in early sass's, without that being invented the newer model would be found. Old technology was would not able find things or learn from computer. However, the difference between new technology and old technology is great because without the old technology, the will continue grow and become more and more innovative.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Temperature and Its Effects on Respiration in Plants and Animals Introduction Cellular respiration is the process of breaking down organic compounds to create usable energy for plants and animals. Energy that results from this metabolic process is stored in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) but carbon dioxide and water are also end products of this reaction. This makes it possible to study the amount of respiration of a plant or animal by measuring the rate at which carbon dioxide is released by the organism.In this experiment, crickets and germinating seeds will be tested at three different temperature ranges and the carbon dioxide output measured and compared. Method To prepare the test, insert the CO? (carbon dioxide) probe into an empty respiration chamber and allow 90 seconds for the probe to warm up. Next, calibrate the CO? probe and allow 30 seconds for the CO? reading to be calculated and record the base reading. After the base reading has been taken weigh an empty res piration chamber in grams and then place 5 to 10 adult crickets, or 5 to 10 germinating seeds into the respiration chamber.Record the weight once again with both the respiration chamber and the organisms combined. Now, subtract the weight of the empty respiration chamber from the weight of the organisms and the respiration chamber together to determine the mass of the crickets or seeds. Continue to prepare the test by placing the probe snugly onto the respiration chamber and ensure that all other holes are sealed. Begin to measure the CO? output in ppm (parts per million) at 10-15Ã ° C (ice bath), 20-25Ã ° C (room temperature) and 35-40Ã ° C (heated water bath. Allow five minutes for the temperature to stabilize when beginning to test a new temperature range and then proceed to collect data with the CO? probe. After a 3 minute period of data collection record the temperature inside the respiration chamber. Find the most linear part of the graph created from the data collected and determine the slope of the line. Divide the slope of the line by the mass of the crickets or seeds to determine the units in ppm/sec/g. Each temperature should be tested 2 to 3 times to get an average respiration rate for each temperature range tested. HypothesisThe test performed at the highest temperature will increase the rate of respiration of an organism, while the test conducted at the lowest temperature will decrease the rate of respiration of an organism. Results Respiration Rates at Various Temperature Ranges Respiration of Germinating Beans in ppm/sec/gRespiration of Crickets In ppm/sec/g TemperatureGroup 1Group 2Group 1Group 2 10-15Ã °C0. 0020. 9231. 1430. 10 0. 18 1. 1790. 3830. 24 20-25Ã °C0. 0960. 8940. 9630. 41 0. 2261. 0911. 1180. 50 35-40Ã °C0. 273. 2552. 4621. 14 0. 473. 8662. 4771. 94 The rate of respiration in the germinating beans gradually increased as the temperature rose.However, groups 1 and 2 studying the germinating beans collected some inconsistent da ta in the 20-25Ã °C temperature range. The overall trend was similar in the data collected from the cricketsÃ¢â¬â¢ respiration rates. They also respired at a greater rate when the temperature was elevated. Additionally, group 1 studying the crickets also recorded some erratic measurements in the 10-15Ã °C temperature range. Conclusion The results of this test supported the hypothesis. It is clear that there is a direct relationship between temperature and respiration in plants and animals.The tendency among both the germinating seeds and the crickets was an increase in respiration as the temperature intensified. The few inconsistencies that occurred throughout the test could have been attributed to not allowing sufficient time for the temperature to stabilize between testing different temperature ranges. Also, the CO? probe could have not been tightly sealed allowing oxygen to enter the respiration chamber and affecting the readings of CO? concentrations. When repeating this tes t it would be important to ensure that these errors are more closely controlled or corrected so that accurate readings could be recorded and evaluated.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Theory and Ideology - Essay Example Thus, preventing Iran from creating and improving more machines must be done. It was during February 9, 2003 exactly at Natanz where the programs and efforts building of sophisticated facilities were revealed. There were also other cities where the construction and formation of uranium were found (Sahimi, 2003). When President Mohammad Khatami disclosed and revealed the information regarding IranÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear program, and the existence of Natanz facilities on the television, Dr. Mohammad El Baradei, the head of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) together with a team of inspectors, visited Iraq in February. The team was surprised with IranÃ¢â¬â¢s high-tech devices; nuclear weapons and other instruments for mass destruction were numerous in number. This made IAEA furnish an ultimatum for Iran to reveal all the details of its nuclear activities. What made IranÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear program the center of attention to many countries was the February announcement. In addition, Unit ed States, the European Union, Russia, and Japan have been maintaining Ã¢â¬Ëcloser lookÃ¢â¬â¢ on IranÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear activities; they expressed strong demand that Iran should disclose all the information pertaining to nuclear weapons. The EU then was negotiating with Iran economic and cultural agreements, while Japan was looking after an oil agreement with Iran (Sahimi, 2003).Though United States and other allies have always been given the chance to participate with the development with IranÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear programs and to produce high class of nuclear weapons and reactors, yet they always refused--they were not certain that Iran really need nuclear energy, and use it for protecting its national interest. Last September 2009, a second uranium enrichment facility near the holy of Qom was discovered, leaving U.S and other member states suspicious of the ongoing development of nuclear machines; this revelation just confirmed the West fear that Iran would continue their Ã¢â¬Ëse cretÃ¢â¬â¢ undertakings. In fact, Iran has developed 4000 centrifuges (Ã¢â¬Å"IranÃ¢â¬â¢s Uranium Enrichment,Ã¢â¬ 2009). However, the Western government has abjured their support to Iran after its nuclear development program was publicized. Consequently, IranÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear progress has depreciated. In spite the consequence, it was announced that IranÃ¢â¬â¢s Darkhovin project has resumed by the Iranian officials; and a 360-megawatt reactor would be placed in that project (Bruno, 2010). IranÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanction and U.S Ways to Dissuade Iran The United States used a Ã¢â¬Å"sharpÃ¢â¬ tooth to sanction Iran. It has imposed unilateral economic sanctions on Iran three decades ago. As mentioned earlier, U.S and the IAEA were not certain about the real purpose of nuclear weapons discovered in Iran, hence, the IAEA expressed an Ã¢â¬Å"absence of confidenceÃ¢â¬ to Iran in September 2005. Not only member states of America have the knowledge about IranÃ¢â¬â¢s growing nuclear ac tivity but also the United Nations Security Council. Iran has enough atoms to make a nuclear bomb (Broad & Sanger, 2009). Just December 2006, UN has adopted the first series of resolutions aimed to impose sanctions and punishment on Iran because of its continued manufacture of uranium--which is known to be hazardous and could be developed into nuclear weapons such as bombs and missiles. Resolution 1737 was initiated in order to bar Iran from selling or transferring those discovered sensitive nuclear technology. But on September 2008, another resolution was drafted
Friday, September 27, 2019
Supreme court decisions and discussions on the exclusionary rule - Research Paper Example The exclusionary rule was initiated from the Weeks v. United States 232 U.S. 383, 34 S. Ct. 341, 58 L. Ed. 652 (1914) case where a Federal agent had carried out a search without warrant in order to collect proof of gambling in Freemont WeeksÃ¢â¬â¢ residence. The evidence proved Weeks guilty but since the search was illegal or warrantless, conviction of the accused was repealed. Weeks was found guilty of fraudulent mail related activities and his house was thoroughly searched and documents seized by the Federal and local officials. Before this case the validity of evidence was judged by its truthfulness. There were two major reasons given for this law. First, it involved the deterrence rationale which specified that Ã¢â¬Ëthe rule was necessary to deter law enforcement personnel from violating the Fourth Amendment or to Ã¢â¬Å"police the policeÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ (Hensely and Snook, 2006, p.160). The second reason concerned due process argument or the fairness rationale. This included that the federal government cannot attain convictions with the help of lawless actions. Thus any evidence collected unconstitutionally would not hold for a case even if the accused is found guilty on the basis of that evidence. The rule was formed through this case and was subject to controversies since then. The controversies found existence in Warren, Burger and Rehnquist courts. In fact Lee Epstein and Thomas Walk observe Ã¢â¬Å"the exclusionary rule provides yet another example of Warren CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s revolutionary treatment of the rights of the criminally accusedÃ¢â¬ (Hensely and Snook, 2006, p.160). In fact in the Wolf v Colorado case the Vinson Court declined to apply this law because most of the states had not adopted the rule and there were other options to ensure sustenance of the Fourth Amendment. In the Warren Court the case of Mapp v Ohio (1961) enforced the exclusionary rule (Hensely and Snook, 2006, p.161). On the other hand individuals cannot receive Fourth Amend ment protection unless they are not able to demonstrate the reasons behind their expectation of privacy regarding the place where searches and seized are happened. According to the Supreme Court of US individuals can have a rational expectation of privacy respect to their own bodies, homes, business offices and others personal properties. Individuals can also enjoy a reliable expectation of privacy in terms of their automobiles. Generally people do not possess reasonable expectation of things like Ã¢â¬Å"vehicle location and paint, garbage left at roadside for collection, public place, bank records and the things left open at public placeÃ¢â¬ (LII, 2010). Miranda warnings come into question with respect to the Fifth Amendment where the suspect when retained for any interrogation should be given a warning before questioning. This warning refers to the right of a criminal suspect to remain silent during interrogation and the warning must be given to him with respect to the use of a ny statement against the person which may be termed as self-incrimination during the trial. this rule can protect the suspect against any Ã¢â¬Å"psychological ploysÃ¢â¬
Thursday, September 26, 2019
FINANCIAL REPORTING & ANALYSIS - Essay Example counting standards include a constant approach towards solving of problems and do not present a sequence of ad hoc reactions that deal with the accounting issues. The main function of the framework is to support the International Accounting Standard Board in the progress of consistent and coherent accounting standards. The conceptual model is not referred to a standard, although it directs in the preparation of financial statement in order to facilitate them to determine accounting issues. It is an extremely influential and important document which helps the users to understand the function as well as the limitation of the financial reporting (Ruppel, 2010). The conceptual framework is an existing subject because it is being amended as a combined project with the International Accounting Standard BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s American Counterparts; the FASB (Financial Accounting Standard Board). However, the conceptual framework is being criticised for not accomplishing its functional goals, mainly that of offering a base for directing standard-setting and resolving accounting arguments. The main rationale behind this project is to highlight the criticism of financial accounting and problems with prevailing conceptual framework. The aims of universal purpose financial reports are also taken into consideration. The purpose of the theoretical/conceptual framework is to build up an enhanced framework which offers a sound base for developing the future accounting models. Such a structure is crucial in fulfilling the BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s objective of developing benchmarks that are value based, internally reliable, and that show the way to the financial reporting; which gives the information to the capital providers who requires to make judgments in their capability as wealth providers. Moreover, the new Financial Accounting Standard Board framework will be constructed on the prevailing framework (Fasb, 2014). Although the prevailing conceptual framework has assisted the International Accounting
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Impact of Markets and the Division of Labour on Social Cohesion - Essay Example This paper seeks to find out if markets and the division of labour encourage or discourage social cohesion. Impacts A market can be described as a destination for goods or services intended for sale. This market is composed of customers who are people that are willing and able to purchase the goods or services that are being sold. Social cohesion refers to the ability of people to articulate or embrace each other and co-exist peacefully (Council of Europe 67). It also refers to the ability of various groups of people to hold firmly together consistently. Scholars have revealed that markets and division of labour have had a substantial impact on social cohesion in the current society. Division of labour has led to the separation of markets and employment through the differentiation and separation of production processes (Furze, Savy, Brym & Lie 55). Instead of producing similar goods and services, the various labourers in the market are sub-divided and allowed to deal with the various specialties of the production processes so as to meet the various market demands. An example of this is a shift from mixed farming to either crop or animal production as separate production lines or dividing the entire work of an organization into different work units, each dealing with a specific task. This shift in the production processes seemingly separates people from coming together and engaging in the production process as a larger group. In a manufacturing industry for example, the work units will be organized around the skill requirements for the various steps of production and marketing like product production, packaging, IT management, sales and marketing, customer relations among others. This gives the impression that division of labour discourages social cohesion. However, a closer look on the mechanisms of division of labour reveals it encourages social cohesion both local and globally through the development of the need to exchange and which in turn brings people tog ether (Council of Europe 117). This is to say that division of labour encourages the need for trade. One country could choose to specialize in producing and supplying a given product basing on their natural and capital, for example oil and gas. On the same note, another country will produce tyres and apparel. Such a situation definitely generates some form of dependency in which case the two countries need each other. The one producing oil and gas needs tyres and apparel and the one producing apparel and tyres needs oil and gas. This gives a picture of the processes of imports and exports that is seen in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. In other words, division of labour defines the lines of production and this means that no person will produce all that they need in life. This creates some deficiencies of the products that a person does not produce and thus the need to obtain it from others. After an examination of division of labour, Smith (25) concluded that unlike the savage or the ancien t man, the modern man/woman is highly dependent on the labour of others to satisfy his/her full range of wants. This structure of satisfying human wants has resulted to the need to focus attention to the importance of exchange and therefore the need for increased human interactions both locally and globally. Through international exchanges like imports and exports, people across the globe have been able to come together, interact and co-exist
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Should Prostitution Be Prohibited - Essay Example Furthermore, it promotes the growth of an immorally-based community. Based on the above underpinning evidence, it is justifiable to strongly say that prostitution ought to be prohibited in our society. Prohibition of prostitution will reduce the high number of incidences of adultery. Prostitution gives men the opportunity to cheat on their girlfriends and wives in an easy. Therefore, if it is prohibited cheating men will suffer extremely consequences since the law will be on their toes. As a result, the number of men who take advantage of prostitutes, wives, or girlfriend will decrease dramatically. Indeed, prostitution ought to be prohibited since it gives rise to many problems in relationships and marriage as well as pave way for many other crimes. Prohibition of prostitution will create a friendly environment for all; especially the children. This is because prostitution makes it hard to explain to children the difference between money and sex, and love and sex since it make them believe that money is more worthy than self-esteem and love. Prostitution immensely affects the morale of a society or community. This is because it makes such a society ignore and become immune to graphicness of sexual images that are thrown in its members faces daily. As a result, members of a society hardly understand the significance of private and personal relationships. In fact, prostitution lowers women dignity since it makes them send the message to men that it is alright to be treated like sexual objects. Connectively, many women are subject to wrath of sexual pressure in order to measure up to hookers. Prostitution, breaking up of ethical and social barriers that many women have worked on in order to reduce sexual harassment occurs. Prohibition of prostitution will help reduce the mentality harbored by many men that women can easily be bought and sold like goods or services. Prohibition of prostitution will help avoid turning sex into a full-blown business. Prostitution has a high likelihood of making sexual services commercial; hence, making them likes any other consumer and entertainment goods. For instance, there many casinos, in Australia where prostitution is legal, which deal with sexual favor chips that, are cashed in at various local brothels (Weitzer 67). Commercialization of sex will be eliminated upon prohibition of prostitution. Prohibition of prostitution will also reduce the large number of crimes rates that are sky-rocketing. According to Weitzer (87), most prostitutes sell their bodies since they are in dire need of money to purchase illegal drugs. In connection to this, prohibition of prostitution will cut down the rate of illegal drug trafficking. Governments that have legalized prostitution on ly serve to promote street or underground prostitution to avoid paying taxes that these governments charge. These prostitutes feel fail to pay taxes since they believe that they did all the work alone; therefore, they should reap their profits and benefits alone. This, in turn, increases the number of crime and abuse against hookers since it put quite a number of them on the streets. Prohibition of prostitution will further will reduce or eliminate the number of advertisements for sexual favors that pop up on every street; even in places that families and parents strongly oppose them to be. As a result, incidences of children developing immune to the promiscuity of their society and
Monday, September 23, 2019
Obesity and San Diego - Term Paper Example Having been an experienced medic in the area, I have observed several cases; and even potential ones; of obesity and therefore there is need for a more inclusive approach in tackling the health condition. The various volunteer works I have been engaged in have further brought to my attention on the consequences of ignoring this issue especially by professionals in the medical field. In addition, my quest for eliminating this problem has been further motivated by the situation currently experienced in my own household. My teenage siblings are at high risk of being obese because of their lifestyle and their consumption habits. This paper focuses on the major contributors of obesity and how to eliminate them in the county of Florida. The various indications as will be discussed below show that this problem is becoming a critical issue in both the county and the whole nation of United States. Policy Plan The healthy people 2010 (2009) indicate that the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s level of obesity, a t least for those who have reported, is about 15% among teenagers and about 18% among the adults in the county. This shows a very alarming trend that calls for intervention by the leadership of the county and overall, of the state. To draw a further highlight of this problem, it is better to mention that obesity is a major contributor of other life threatening conditions like: asthma, coronary diseases, diabetes, cancer and others according to the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s health and human services agency. It is because of these findings that there was a decision to contact the local authority in this case, the mayor of San Diego City Council. The date identified for this visit will be the 23rd day of February, 2013. Policy making is very essential for eradication of this problem and therefore the justification of this choice. Since there is difficulty in securing appointment with the mayor, it is important that there are various people mobilized to help capture some attention. Another propos ed way is therefore through mobilization of affected people for a peaceful procession to the mayorÃ¢â¬â¢s office in which an appointment will be sought and the date above be pushed. The main policy proposal will be that of ensuring that there are campaigns and sensitization programs in the county to aid in the awareness creation that will help change the lifestyle and eating habits of the local people so that they do not succumb to this great problem. A report by Jeannie et al (2009) indicates that the HOPE project is one of the successful ways the nation has enabled the medics in the country provide necessary assistance and guidance to victims of this condition by establishing a curriculum for the medical professionals like nurses to enable them learn through the internet on ways to tackle this issue. Internet use has been widespread among the teenage population and that is why this project can be used as a guideline in developing a policy to combat this problem in the county. Th e healthy people 2020 (2012) suggest methods of tackling the problem of rising obesity among the teenagers in the country. Most importantly, it envisages the reduction of obesity cases by use of alternative prevention mechanisms of which campaign by professionals, especially the nurses, is one of them. It even goes further by pointing out the need for sufficient information on the causes of overweight among the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s population. Story et al (2008) propose a combined policy and
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Emergence of Integrated Marketing Communication - Essay Example The integrated marketing campaign cannot be successful if the different deliverables are not put in a direct fashion towards the target audience; no matter it is the primary one or the secondary target market. The marketing plan, however, remains the key in such a situation and it cannot be counted off, no matter how difficult the undertakings or executions of the IMC turn out to be. Thus IMC and MC must go hand in hand towards a successful execution of the product and/or serviceÃ¢â¬â¢s message geared towards the relevant target audience. Message consistency is indeed a significant aspect of the integrated marketing campaign since the old campaigns might just get mixed with the newer campaigns that are brought forward by the relevant brand, which could either be a product or a service and in some cases, a hybrid also works to some effect. The message must remain geared towards a selected target audience as this ensures that there are no shortcomings on the part of the people for which the message is put out, in the first place. With that, we must understand that a well balanced IMC campaign looks to plug the shortcomings which usually arise in the wake of changing messages and when certain strategies and tactics are amended for one reason or the other. The reasons could be aplenty but the most important thing here to understand is the fact that the message must remain synchronized and there are no double meanings or embedded messages beneath the new campaign brought forward by the product and/or service. Message consi stency within an effective and efficient IMC campaign suggests that the brand team has done its homework well and that there are no hindrances in the wake of it achieving short-term benefits and long-term, strategic profits.Ã
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Effect of Illiteracy Essay Recent studies show that there is an increasing rate of illiteracy all over the world. A study conducted by WSI(World Statistics Institute) shows that over 27% of people are illiterate globaly. Another study by the same institute shows that the speed at which illiteracy rate ascends is 32%. These rates are quite important, as illiteracy has terrible effects on society. The most important effect of illiteracy on society is that, it works as an inhibitor. That is to say, the more illiterate people there are in a country, the harder it will be for the country to develop. This fact could be clarified with an example: America(whose illiteracy rate is below 5%) and Canada(Illiteracy rate: around 8%) are developed countries, whereas countries, like Turkey and Iran(Illiteracy rates: 61% and 43% in order) are undeveloped countries. Illiteracy has got a kind of genetic effect. The children of illiterate people are more likely to be illiterate that those who arent. Even if the parents dont want their children to be illiterate, their children, observing the parents, see that they somehow manage to live and adopt the idea that illiteracy isnt actually a bad thing. And since people develop most of their character during childhood, they choose to go with illiteracy. Another major effect of illiteracy is that, illiterate people believe in the said things easily. They do not investigate what was said or told to them. When looked at the pages of history, it can be seen that, while most uneducated people are slaves, guardians and assistants; people who are educated are mostly kings, quenns and sultans. They are not slaves because they wanted, but because people superior to them -in terms of education- made them so. All these significant results of illiteracy affect society in a bad way.
Friday, September 20, 2019
What Makes A Movie Great? With thousands of films released each and every year and so few succeeding either commercially or financially, one has to pose the question: what is it, exactly, that makes a film great? From an audiences perspective, people watch movies to be entertained: they are looking, above all else, to hear a good story that will allow them to share experiences with the characters and with their friends; to see spectacles; to visit other worlds to which they could never otherwise travel; and to escape the boredom of their day-to-day routines. Outstanding films are able to accomplish all of this with skill and artistry. But even in spite of the battery of statistical tests put forward by leading psychologists to unearth the formula for cinematic success (Simonton, 2011), there are many who believe that the quality of a film is impossible to define, being utterly contingent upon personal interpretation. I intend to dig deeper to investigate this issue, looking in detail at the specific tools and techniques a filmmaker has at their disposal to entertain an audience. Before we can truly address the issue of what constitutes entertainment, I would like to take a moment to consider why it is that anyone does anything. According to Anthony Robbins, Everything you and I do, we do either out of our need to avoid pain or our desire to gain pleasure (Robbins, 1992: 53). With this in mind, why is it that tension and conflict, both of which are painful in and of themselves, are widely regarded as two of the central tenants of an engaging story? I would suggest that watching a character learning to avoid pain is a learning experience in which the viewer, too, is able to learn how to avoid pain. Comparable in many ways to the experience of working hard for a greatly desirable objective, this in itself can be a pleasurable thing to observe; we, in such a situation, are able to cherish the end result all the more thanks to our appreciation of what went into achieving it. This is precisely the kind of pleasure provided by most films, and is known specifically as delayed or deferred gratification (Kim, 2006). Generally speaking, then, audiences watch films to have an emotionally satisfying experience. So how can a film be made more emotional? Arguably the most important step we can take towards answering this question is to understand that the viewer is not simply passive when watching a film; in fact, if Elkins definition of simply looking as in fact pertaining to hoping, desiring, never just taking in light, never merely collecting patterns and data (Elkins, 1996: 22) is assumed to be correct, they will begin to manifest their own expectations about what they may see even before the movie begins. It is the therefore the responsibility of the filmmaker to show and tell the viewer the story in such a way as to meet, and exceed, these expectations. There are as many different models that can be used to create exciting stories as there are stories themselves, but, in the simplest possible form, a story can be described as the narration of a chain of events pertaining to a character who wants something (Johnson, 1995). The aim is to organise that story into a structure that allows it to be narrated clearly and dramatically. But what is story structure? In broader terms, structure refers to the relationship between the parts of something, or can otherwise function as the support for something. Whereas the human body relies on a skeletal structure of bones to support itself, the parts of a film story are comprised first and foremost of a series of narrative questions, along with the delays and answers to those questions. The structure is simply how the questions and answers that make up that story are presented, which shots are chosen and in what order, and it is this structuring of events that can make the difference between a sim ple narrative and one that is unforgettable and emotionally profound. The relationship between form and content has been studied extensively by many film writers. David Bordwell, for instance, refers to the terms used by the Russian Formalists, relying heavily upon the terms fabula and syuzhet. The former, according to Bordwell, is a pattern which perceivers of narratives create through assumptions and inferences (Bordwell, 1985: 49). In other words, the fabula comprises the cues and perceptions the viewer receives from the film, and is liable to change from viewer to viewer if the work is complex. The syuzhet, on the other hand, refers to The actual arrangement and presentation of the fabula in the film (Ibid: 50); it is the plot, or structure, of the narrative. Bob Foss instead uses the terms plane of events and plane of discourse, or The what and how of film narrative (Foss, 1992: 2). Regardless of the terms used, virtually all film theorists are agreed on the importance of plot in relation to the creation of engaging cinema, as Seymour Chatman articulates with his suggestion that narrative structure in fact communicates meaning in its own right, over and above the paraphrase-able contents of its story (Chatman, 1980: 23). According to Vogler (2007: 6), some Hollywood executives were concerned so much with this paradigm that they would look only at scripts which were either a fish-out-of-water tale or about an unholy alliance, and it was not until the publication of The Hero with a Thousand Faces before executives were given an additional way of analysing stories. The Heros Journey was originally described by mythology professor Joseph Campbell as a journey of self-discovery and self-transcendence (Campbell, 2008: 17), and seemed to encompass a variety of different types of narratives that might otherwise have been disregarded. More specifically, The Heros Journey acted as the paradigm for all stories. Having studied myths, fables, and folktales from all time periods all over the globe, Campbell discovered that there was a common structure that underlined the journey each and every protagonist would take. There was a good reason for this: at its most fundamental level, the Heros Journey addresses the key psychological principle of what Milton Erickson refers to as life junctures; defined as moments of transition from one stage of life to another, Erickson demonstrates that most people become psychologically trapped at such moments (Erickson, 1977). The parallel with Campbells work becomes more evident when we consider that Erickson also suggests that the most common reason for this stasis is the inappropriate generalisation of fear from an earlier trauma to other situations; unsure of how to cope with new demands placed upon them, they keep trying to use old methods that are no longer functional at this new level. Broadly speaking, it is precisely such moments of stasis at which the majority of film characters are introduced to the viewer. In this regard, the Heros Journey exists as the story of human growth placed into a dramatized form, which is another way of saying that the story is externalised in visible action. It is because these heroes solve their inner conflicts that they can win the external conflicts, and the audience gets reborn along with the heroes. But what separates the visible action of a film from the structure of the narrative, and why is it that the audience does not consciously notice the latter? The classical Hollywood style asks that form be rendered invisible; that the viewer see only the presence of actors in an unfolding story that seems to be existing on its own (Hill and Gibson, 1998: 16). It does not take too much in the way of imagination to see this concept in practise, such that, if you were to watch the first few minutes of a film and then walk away from it, it should be relatively easy to give a simple account of the plot and the motivations of the characters therein. But would you hear the background music? Would you notice the shot sizes and framing, or the cutting up of time and space? Most likely you would be too busy working out what was happening and what it meant to let your attention wander to such a structural level. It is not that these things are invisible, but simply that they drop below the viewe rs threshold of attention. Any part of the structure can in fact cross that threshold; as long as the world of the film is seamless and doesnt break the spell by calling attention to itself, however, the viewer will not be paying attention to the acting, cinematography or editing, but watching real people facing overwhelming obstacles in their struggle to achieve their dreams. It is therefore the job of the filmmaker to direct the audiences attention towards these events through careful attention to narrative structure. The Heros Journey provides a means of doing just this; given its popularity to this day throughout Hollywood, however, there is a danger that the stories created using it might appear similar. When that happens, it bursts through the threshold of conscious attention and the audience is taken out of the story. Just as there are several problems that can arise when we speak, however, the most common types of speaking problems also have a filmic equivalent: whereas verbally, for example, we talk about one thing at a time, one of the main issues when telling a story with pictures arises from the simple truth that pictures can say too much. This conflicts with the theory of selective attention, which states that the conscious mind can only pay attention to one thing at a time (Dewey, 2007). The attention of the human mind is a precious commodity, and it is important to recognise that the viewers ability to concentrate on the material they are being presented with is affected by a great number of factors including fatigue, interest and general state of mind. When we multitask, for instance, we feel like we are accomplishing a great deal of work, whereas in reality the brain is juggling attention very quickly between multiple items. This is why drivers talking on a phone or talking to a passenger are statistically more likely to be involved in an accident, as their attention is split even though they think they are focused on driving (Myers, 2008: 87). Theories of Neuro-Linguistic Programming state that one of the functions of the brain is to act as a filter, continually deleting, generalising and distorting the information we receive about the world so as to protect us from information overload (Burton and Ready: 65). In other words, we dont pay attention to a lot of inf ormation we are exposed to, but instead delete it. When the film is racing past at twenty-five frames per second, which part of the image will the audience be looking at? Suppose they see the wrong part, and thus miss the thread of the storytelling entirely? In order to prevent this, a filmmaker must have the ability to control their images to ensure that they are able to communicate the desired message to their audience; this is where design, composition, perspective and lighting each come into play. Without these, the viewer would not be able to see exactly what was happening onscreen and would be unable to follow the story. Filmmakers have developed a great variety of specific techniques to solve these types of problems; instead of showing two things at a time, for instance, the camera can pan from one to the other, a cut can be made between two shots, or focus can be racked, or shifted, between the objects in the frame. Though all of these solutions have become commonplace in mainstream cinema, they all serve to simplify what to look at for the viewers sake by presenting only one thing at a time. Arguably even stronger than this, however, is the human minds reliance on stereotypes and clichÃ ©s, often demonstrating a strong tendency to distort those things that do not fit into our worldview as a way of dealing with the overwhelming amount of information it receives. Specifically, the brain constantly seeks to organise this data into patterns; though the most obvious patterns exist as visual designs, patterns exist everywhere: in music, in the way people speak, and even in traffic and weather. As we have already explored, narrating a story is little more than organising information into a pattern, or structure. But how does this work on the micro level of filmmaking? How, for instance, are we able to make the protagonist stand out in the middle of a crowded scene? Grouping, by definition, applies to things that are alike in some way, which could include proximity; by this logic, we could dress the main characters differently, or have them stand some way apart from the rest of the crowd. With all other characters wearing muted colours and the hero dressed in black and white, the mind will perceive the crowd as a group and the protagonist will automatically stand out. This is an example of one of the ways in which gestalt principles can be a useful tool for applying the speaking metaphor of telling the viewer only one thing at a time; a German word meaning shape or form, gestalt refers to an organised whole that is more than just the sum of its parts, and functions as a reasonably accurate description of the way in which the human mind organises our experiences of life. In this example, objects that are either similar or close together are grouped, leaving the mind to pick out individual things on which to focus while the rest fades into the background. This is why, when reading, we perceive each word, or clusters of words, as opposed to individual letters, and do not notice that the remainder of the page simply recedes from our conscious awareness. Far from mere abstraction, gestalt principles have been proven to work at almost every level of the viewing experience, including perception of images, understanding and comprehension of narrative, the me, and even sound. Another key concept of gestalt perception lies in the minds tendency to fill in the blanks, or seek closure: if we listen to a familiar musical theme where the final part is omitted, the mind will fill in that missing section itself. Similarly, on a visual level, a tension will be created in the viewers head that wants to close the shape if parts of a figure are cut out. This refers to the gestalt principle of good continuity, which states that we will assume things to be continuing; pictorially, lines are perceived to carry on even if another object obscures part of them from view. The implications of this are profound even on the most basic levels of filmmaking theory. Firstly, when the audience sees a close-up of a characters head, it is assumed to be connected to a body. Filmic cuts also work based entirely on the principle that, if the viewer witnesses one action and the action is seen to be continuing from a different angle, it is assuming to exist as part of the same action. The most important realisation, however, is that closure works not just on the perceptual level, but also on the level of story. In any story, the hypothesis What ifÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦? is presented to be true. The writer is, for all intents and purposes, a masterful liar, offering a wealth of supporting details with which to flesh out a world in which the action unfolds that is believable and seamless enough to remain below the audiences conscious threshold of attention. When a narrative question is introduced, the brain begins searching in an attempt to make sense of the question, and the cortex generates answers that imbue that question with meaning from what is known of the story thus far. The crucial point is that the viewer demands that these questions be answered, so much so that the cortex will continue to generate answers even when the questions do not make logical sense: if we were to ask ourselves why the moon is made of cheese, for instance, our brains will attempt to present us with a logical solution. Pratkanis and Aronson suggest that, Given our finite ability to process information, we attempt to simplify complex problems to the extent that we will mindlessly accept a conclusion or proposition not for any good reason but because it is accompanied by a simplistic persuasion device (2002: 38). As long as the questions are sufficiently engaging, the viewer will, without closure in the narrative, exist in an anxious state of suspense. It is this need for closure that drives us to continue reading, listening to or watching stories of all kinds, as answers to the questions raised are found by watching the film and thus relieve the viewers lack of knowledge. Only by tying up all of the narrative threads can the storyteller dissipate this tension, and in this sense, the power of suggestion could easily be considered a filmmakers greatest ally. It is regrettable that the vast majority of modern horror filmmaking appears to have forgotten this fact entirely. Essentially, there are two distinct approaches to creating a horror film: those that choose to show all of the gory details, and those that instead choose to suggest what might happen. Though each type of film has its place, I personally believe the latter to be infinitely more evocative, for the very reason that the filmmaker is able to use the viewers fears against them. Taking the filmmakers clues, they will automatically fill in the blanks themselves from their own experiences and associations, making the experience more meaningful for each individual. When we consider that this power is not under the viewers conscious control, the director of a film could, provided an awareness of the minds infinite capacity to create in the presence of interesting suggestions, be likened to a hypnotist. Continuing along this train of thought, I believe that other types of entertainment artists can shed a lot of insight onto the problem of directing the audiences attention. Magician and conjurer Nathaniel Schiffman, for instance, poses a particularly interesting question: What is magicÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ really? We know magic is fake. We know it relies on all sorts of deceptions, but why is it that some deceptions work while others do not? Why are some fakes plausible while others stand out like a sore thumb? For instance, a cartoon is fake-mere drawings on paper, thats pretty obvious. A sculpture is a fake made of rock. But when we observe the fakeness of magic, we dont interpret it as fake. We see it as very real. Even when we know in our hearts that a person cannot fly, that a silver sword cannot penetrate a body and come out blood-less, even when our eyes betray our common sense, we see magical illusions as real. Why is that? What is this stuff that magic is made of that is fake and yet real at the same time? (Schiffman, 1997: 77) Schiffman could easily have been talking about movies: when watching a film, the viewer knows that what they are watching is not real, yet often goes along for the ride even to the point of being moved to tears and laughter by them. How is it that films can be simultaneously fake yet real? The answer lies in the unconscious minds inability to differentiate between real world and imagined experiences. Even though we rationally know that a film is fake, our body and our emotions physically respond just as they would in real life: we experience excitement, feel the powerful release of laughter and shed real tears from being touched. Physiologically, our heart rate increases, our palms sweat and we experience a rush of adrenaline. This is the case as long as the film engages the viewers conscious mind in addition to their body. In other words, a film can involve elements of extreme fantasy as long as it remains logically plausible. It is the job of the filmmaker to establish rules for th e world of the film and play within those rules, otherwise the audience will feel that they have been cheated and withdraw consciously from the story. In many regards, any film is in its entirety little more than a magic trick, consisting of a patchwork of fragments which never existed in reality. This illusion is furthered by the minds predisposition to link up all aspects of the experience, even though in reality no such connection may exist. Magicians also use the same kind of structuring as storytellers, narrating a story about magical properties known as patter. Patter can be considered akin to the magicians script, with words used to introduce an illusion, enhancing the performance with a fanciful story. This is often achieved by painting a scene of childhood nostalgia, or by inducing some other emotion in the listener. Words, essentially, are used to misdirect and direct, and can often provide the additional shove that allows peoples minds to accept one imagined reality over another. ADD BACK STUFF ABOUT PRESUPPOSITIONS. Magic wands and gestures serve much the same function: the magician must ensure that his or her gestures read clearly for the audience. Often, they will be directing the viewers attention away from something else, perhaps some common mechanical mechanism hidden from view, in much the same way as telling stories of high adventure while in fact teaching moral lessons. The relationship between a magicians stage patter and the trick itself are similar to that of story events and structure in a film, wherein patter can be considered the story of the illusion whilst the trick itself is the thing that remains hidden and makes it work. The filmmakers trick is simply that of juxtaposing otherwise unconnected images to make a story, using images to implicitly suggest questions and then delaying the answers, thus generating a tension that engages the audience in stories about characters on a quest to achieve a specific goal. Provided the audience is able to read these images, the brain will automatically construct the story, using gestalt to connect characters and objects in action into meaningful wholes greater than the sum of their constituent parts. The gestalt principle of good continuity will ensure that connections are created between shots, and presuppositions and assumptions will allow an individual version of the story to be constructed in the viewers head that is meaningful for them. Tongues Blood Does Not Run Dry by Assia Djebar | Review Tongues Blood Does Not Run Dry by Assia Djebar | Review Assia Djebar is an Algerian writer, translator and moviemaker. She is one of North Africas best-known and most widely celebrated writers and has in print poems, plays, and short stories, and has produced a couple of movies. In her manuscripts, Djebar has covered the harangue for social liberation and the Muslim womans world in its intricacies. Numerous of her works deal with the effect of the warfare on womens psyche. Djebars impressive feminist posturing has earned her much admiration also substantial antagonism and derision from pro-autonomy critics in Algeria.In this collection of stories, Djebar attempts to tell tales to emancipate her Algerian sisters. Recalling the horrifying nights in the annals of Algerian independence in the early sixties, she pens her work between France and her native country, in the echoes of women who have dual loyalties and who are multi-lingual. Oran, Dead Language commences the tales of horror when Algeria attained autonomy from colonialists. Oran, in Algeria boasted the elevated concentrations of pied-noirs, Settlers who fled the country for Europe and particularly France upon independence. The narrator recalls the tearful night when her parents were killed, and how she fled her home city for France at the age of eighteen. She is forced to retreat to Algeria three decades laterthough she feels just like many other storyline characters that Algeria is the forgettable past. In the story, Djebar motions at the oscillations of Europeans from their settlements to France and back to Algeria years later. Civil unrest particularly plays the catalytic agent of movement, and forces humans to look for areas of safety. Mentally the characters deny relationship with Algeria preferring to label it as Ã¢â¬Å"overÃ¢â¬ . In Algeria, the narrator expresses displeasure. Oran is a place where you forget. Ã¢â¬Å"Forget and forget moreÃ¢â¬ . A city that has been swabbed, recollections blanched. A whole decade after it attained independence the centre of the city was left abandoned, apart from a few offices, the headquarters of two or three organizations. In the captivating story, Felicies Body, a young man documents his mothers life when she comes back to France for treatment from Algeria. He tries to recall his mothers life taking us through her mothers personal journey in respect to marriage to his Algerian father. The young man looks at his dual life analyzing which aspect of his dual to identify with and adopt and which one to disown. Young citizens are faced with oscillations in their mental and physical status just like the young man experiences when faced with an identity crisis. The mother traveling from Algeria to France to seek treatment is also an indication of a repeated pattern where Algerians with connections to France have to keep moving from Algeria to France when they seek better conditions of life like better medicine and health facilities. His mother Felice Marie Germaine has eight children, eight of whom still live in Algeria. Ever since his father died and was buried at Beni-Rached the young man, Karim decides he is done with Oran and all of Algeria and tells the mother who is better ridden with a not so promising health condition. The scene at the hospital gives a moving picture of the contrast of the lifestyles the two countries offer and the reason for the oscillations; people are always on the move to find a better life. In Annie and Fatima, the narrator tells the story of her sisters friend. The narrators sister met the friend while they were having Barber classes. On a night, when the friend is staying with her, she tells her story of Algiers. In the scene, she mentally travels to Algiers, recalling how it is a peaceful capital, dotted with a craze of mushrooming political parties and with newspapers launched. It is for a moment that she wonders how better the country would be if democratic reforms were constituted. The rise of political parties gives her hope that the political dispensation would be for the better. The development of newspapers would also open up the free media and the democratic space. Algeria at the time they were leaving as a young person was not free and fully liberated. Although not physically traveled, fear of Algerian life is legitimized inside demotic culture by a custom of the use of aggression as a legitimate means of getting economic wealth that goes back to pre-colonia l days.Ã Consequently, monetary activity in tangential areas of urban settlement is therefore dominated by violence that is decorousÃ by its appeal to an Islamist style, though, in reality, it is merely related to fiscal benefit. Despite indistinct sentiment in Algeria pertaining its colonial power, France has thrashed a historically preferential leaning in Algerian foreign association. Algeria went through a high level of reliance on France in the initial years after the revolution and a contradictory want to be free of that dependency. Problems abide for the Algerians living in France and they spend time fantasizing about what their country (Algeria) could have been. References Djebar, A. Raleigh, T. (2006). The tongues blood does not run dry: Algerian stories. NY: Seven Stories Press
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Expanding Perception in Alan LightmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Einstein's Dreams To attempt to describe Einstein's Dreams would be like trying to explain magic. For example, imagine that a magician holds a ping-pong ball playfully, transferring it from one hand to the other. The magician invites the audience to examine a red silk kerchief that had been neatly tucked into his jacket's front pocket. He then lays the kerchief flat in his left hand and places the ping-pong ball in that kerchief-covered palm. The magician gathers the four corners of the kerchief together, flings it into the air and lets it fall to the floor. He picks up the kerchief and presents it again to the audience for examination: The ping-pong ball is nowhere to be found. Can you say that, from reading this description, you were full of awe and wonder when you discovered the ping-pong ball's disappearance? I would wager that you were not. If you have ever read Einstein's Dreams, you can appreciate my dilemma. If you have not yet had the opportunity to experience this wonderful novel by Alan Lightman, I guarantee that after you read it you will expand your perception of the nature of time and of human activity. The novel is enchanting. It is a fictional account of what one of the greatest scientific minds dreams as he begins to uncover his theory of relativity. Whenever I suggest the novel to the uninitiated, they often say that they are not interested in the sciences. This novel is more like art and poetry, I reply. Einstein's Dreams is Lightman's first work of fiction, although he previously wrote at least six books and for several magazines. Lightman currently teaches physics and writing at M.I.T. From these two seemingly conflicting backgrounds come reviews like "A wonderfully odd, clever, mystical book of meditations on time, poetically spare and delightfully fresh" and "Endlessly fascinating. A beguiling inquiry into the not-at-all theoretical, utterly time-tangled, tragic and sublime nature of human life." Only sixteen of the 179 pages relate to Albert Einstein. The rest of the novel describes some of his "dreams" from April 15 to June 28, 1905. What if time were a circle? What if cause and effect were erratic? What if the passage of time brought increasing order? What if we had no memories? What if time flowed backward? What if we lived for only a day? What if time were measured by quality and not quantity?
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Changing Roles of the Reader and Writer in the Literature The continuing emergence of innovative writing technologies allows people to express themselves and communicate in countless different ways from years past. With these new technologies comes a change in many of our learning and social traditions. The most important change is the metamorphosis taking place in the online literary world. The line between author and reader has become blurred as more and more technology-driven literature, like hypertext fiction, has become interactive. The whole idea of authorship has changed, which in turn affects the role of the reader. In Writing Space, Jay Bolter further explores the changing roles of the author and reader in hypertextual literature. He believes the author and reader have become equal contributors to the writing process. The flexibility and interactive nature of electronic writing enables the reader to participate and choose what direction they want the writing to go (Bolter 168). Therefore, the writer and reader both participate in the writing process. The new writer/reader partnership in the writing process brings many changes. One aspect that changes along with the new writer/reader roles is the idea of having control over what is interpreted from the work. In some ways, hypertextual literature offers more control to the writer. Bolter points out that the author, through the use of hyperlinks and hypertexts, can force the reader to visit and read a specific reference or reading, thus have greater control over cross-referencing (Bolter 175). However, he also states that the computer can make the act of reading a competition between the author and reader f... ...writing and the transformations in our literary world create brand new roles for the reader and writer. Perhaps in the future the computer alone will be capable of taking on a role as an author as the idea of artificial intelligence becomes more and more developed. And even though the new roles may be hard to adapt to at first, as I found while reading Ã¢â¬Å"Disappearing Rain,Ã¢â¬ there is no denying that people are going to have to adjust to the new writing spaces available by changing the way they write and read. Works Cited Bolter, Jay. Writing Space: Computers, Hypertext, and the Remediation of Print. 2nd ed. London: Erlbaum Associates, 2001. Carter, Deena. Disappearing Rain. 16 March 2004 http://www.deenalarsen.net/rain Murray, Janet H. Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of the Narrative in Cyberspace. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2001.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Sodium, one of many elements in the periodic table is being used in everyday life, it is also an essential element within your body. It is just another element, but one of the differences is that this element is something that most people consume every day. Sodium has played an important role in everyday life because of its uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture(Shriver). Sodium was discovered in 1807 by a man named Sir Humphrey Davy. He was well known for his discoveries of most alkali metals and Alkaline Earth Metals, such as potassium, magnesium, and many more(Chemicool Periodic Table). Sodium is from the alkali metal family. There are five more chemical elements from the same exact family. The period number of sodium is three. Na is the chemical symbol of sodium on the periodic table. Na is the symbol because it comes from the Latin word Ã¢â¬Å"NatriumÃ¢â¬ , which means sodium (Periodic). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s atomic number is eleven and it has the atomic mass of 22. 98977, which makes it the fifth largest in its family(Web Elements). Each and every element has difference has a difference between each of them. When Sodium is not exposed to air it is silvery- white in color and is bright and shiny. When it is kept in open air, it becomes dull and gray because of the reaction with the oxygen present in the atmosphere. At room temperature, sodium is found in the form of a solid which is very soft to touch. Due to its softness, you can easily cut it with a table knife(Mukherjee). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s melting point is 97. 72 degrees Celsius and 207. 9 degrees Fahrenheit. The freezing point is the same as the melting point but the boiling point is 883 degrees Celsius and 1621 degrees Fahrenheit(Web Elements). When a fresh piece of sodium comes in contact with air, it forms sodium oxide and this oxide forms a white coating and protects the metal from any other reaction. The reaction with sodium and water can be very dangerous. Reaction of sodium with water results in sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. As heat is produced during this reaction, it is called exothermic reaction. This released heat often burns the hydrogen gas and as a result fire may break out. If large pieces of sodium are put into water it can lead to loud explosions(Mukherjee). Most elements are used in everyday life. They can be used in same ways and different ways. Sodium compounds have many uses in industry, medicine, agriculture, and photography. Manufactures use sodium borate in making ceramics, soaps , and many more. Sodium hydroxide is an important industrial alkali used in refining petroleum and many people take sodium bicarbonate to relieve an overly acid stomach Pure sodium mostly is used in industrial uses. Some is used to produce such metals as titanium and zirconium. One of main everyday uses of sodium that everyone knows about is salt. Forty percent of sodium is used to make salt and most likely people consume salt every day(Shriver). Sodium is the fourth most abundant element and it makes up almost 2. 6% of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust. Another fact is that sodium is highly reactive , which makes the storage of the element a very hard task. The best way to store it is by putting it into liquid hydrocarbons. Sodium is also very important to the body because it helps regulate blood pressure, muscle relaxation, fluid balance in the body, and much more(Periodic Table). This element is incorporated in the project by the using table salt. The table salt represents the element sodium and it will be hit by a marble which will tilt the salt to pour onto the fries. This element was chosen because it is very commonly used in everyday life, it would be very easily incorporated in the project, it was a very interesting element, and while it is very easy to incorporate in the project it also seems very challenging. In conclusion, Sodium is highly used in everyday life. It can be used in medicine, food, and more(Shriver). It has many interesting facts that many people probably do not know, but should know. There are about 115 elements in the periodic table and sodium is just one of those elements(Chemicool Periodic Table)
Monday, September 16, 2019
The following memo will explain the findings of the financial statement analysis for 2008 for BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters as well as offer advice significant decreases in profits or increases in liabilities if they apply. Some quick facts: Liquidity is up for 2008 Current ratio shows we pay assets 5.99 times for every current liability, an increase of 62% from 2007 Significant liquidity ratio decrease in 2008 was in inventory turnover Inventory tuning over 6.67 times per year, down 42% from 2007 BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters inventory turnover is affecting the profits. The profitability ratios decreased with the stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity decreasing the most by 56%. The interest expense for 2007 and 2008 has been eliminated. BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters total debt was decreased to assets by 24% in 2007 to 16%, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s number now shows solvency. In order to determine if a company will meet short term debt obligations liquid ratios are used by businesses and investors. BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters has proven short term obligations 5.99 times to 1 liability. At the point when an owner or investor evaluates an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s liquidity ratios, they are utilizing data from the Balance Sheet to evaluate if an organization has the ass ets and the ability to pay off short term liabilities. BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters have met the mark. Stakeholders use profitability ratios to pick up understanding on the adequacy or sufficiency of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s profits. Loaning organizations and investors will utilize profitability ratios to help focus the conceivable financial related profits for the investment into that particular organization. Administration inside of an organization can use profitability ratios to issue territories inside of the organization and make any vital enhancements to enhance execution in those areas. The accompanying attachments will demonstrate that we have decreased in the amount of profit margin. This decrease demonstrates that business has hindered in 2008. BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blaster may need to look over marketingÃ methodologies to produce more business in the impending year. Solvency ratios are for the most part utilized by long term lenders and stakeholders. Both clients are utilizing solvency ratios to focus the long term quality and survival of an organization. Long term monetary quality of an organization is essential to these clients to demonstrate that an organization will have the capacity to pay off debt and accrued interest of a mature debt. BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters has made a decent showing of decreasing the measure of amount of total debt to assets. Generally speaking, BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters is in great financial health in correlation to others in the business. An intercompany near analysis was performed utilizing our organizations nearest traded on an open market contender, Rollins Inc. Like BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters, Rollins Inc. provides pest and termite control services to business and private customers. The Rollins Inc. SEC filed 10-K for the period ending 12/31/08, the attached ratio, horizontal and vertical analysis are the source documents for the data below. The profit margin is by far the most valuable accounting aspect for any company. BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters has doubled the profit margin (16%) other than Rollins Inc. (6.6%) In regards to solvency, BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters incurred no interest expense while Rollins Inc. paid $761,000 interest expense. Another commonly used profitability ratio used primarily by investors is the return on common stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity. BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters and Rollins Inc. performed splendidly and tied at 30%. The ratio, horizontal, and vertical analysis performed managers, creditors, and investors can see that BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters remains competitive, and is a valuable investment. I hope you have gained further insight into the financial health of BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters. References: Weygandt, J.J., Kimmel, P.D., & Kieso, D.E. (2010). Financial Accounting (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Apollo Group Virtual Organization. (2011). BerryÃ¢â¬â¢s Bug Blasters. Retrieved from:https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/CIST/VOP/Business/Berrys/index.asp on July 24, 2015.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Area of Study: Belonging Texts of your choosing: Film Title: Ã¢â¬Å"Boy in the striped pyjamasÃ¢â¬ Composer: Mark Herman A chilling portrayal of the power of society to define belonging, this film depicts the holocaust from the point of view of a young German boy who develops a friendship with a Jewish boy the other side of a barbed wire fence (Auschwitz). A chilling portrayal of the power of society to define belonging, this film depicts the holocaust from the point of view of a young German boy who develops a friendship with a Jewish boy the other side of a barbed wire fence (Auschwitz).Brief Outline to the text: This cautionary tale is about two boys, one the son of a commandant and the other a Jew, who come face-to-face at a barbed wire fence that separates, and eventually intertwines their lives. The novel is set during the Holocaust, Bruno is only nine-years-old when his father is transferred from Berlin to Auschwitz. The house at Ã¢â¬Å"Out-With,Ã¢â¬ as Bruno calls it, i s small, dark, and strange. He spends long days gazing out the window of his new bedroom, where he notices people dressed in striped pyjamas and rows of barracks surrounded by a barbed wire fence.Bored and lonely, and not really understanding the circumstance of his new existence, Bruno sets out to explore the area and discovers Shmuel, a very thin Jewish boy who lives on the other side of the fence. An unlikely friendship develops between the two boys, but when Bruno learns that his mother plans to take her children back to Berlin, he makes a last effort to explore the forbidden territory where the boy in the striped pyjamas lives.This cautionary tale is about two boys, one the son of a commandant and the other a Jew, who come face-to-face at a barbed wire fence that separates, and eventually intertwines their lives. The novel is set during the Holocaust, Bruno is only nine-years-old when his father is transferred from Berlin to Auschwitz. The house at Ã¢â¬Å"Out-With,Ã¢â¬ as Br uno calls it, is small, dark, and strange. He spends long days gazing out the window of his new bedroom, where he notices people dressed in striped pyjamas and rows of barracks surrounded by a barbed wire fence.Bored and lonely, and not really understanding the circumstance of his new existence, Bruno sets out to explore the area and discovers Shmuel, a very thin Jewish boy who lives on the other side of the fence. An unlikely friendship develops between the two boys, but when Bruno learns that his mother plans to take her children back to Berlin, he makes a last effort to explore the forbidden territory where the boy in the striped pyjamas lives. Explain the belonging that is represented in the text: Perceptions and ideas of belonging, or of not belonging, vary.These perceptions are shaped within personal, cultural, historical and social contexts. A sense of belonging can emerge from the connections made with people, places, groups, communities and the larger world. People may cons ider aspects of belonging in terms of experiences and notions of identity, relationships, acceptance and understanding. Through BoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, the boy in the striped pyjamas it reveals how belonging can enrich our identity and relationships. This would subsequently portray how acceptance and understanding may be obtained through the enrichment of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity.Key examples that develop belonging in the text: Ã¢â¬Å"A home is not a building or a street or a city or something so artificial as bricks and mortar. A home is where oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family isÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You're my best friend, Shmuel, My best friend for life. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He looked the boy up and down as if he had never seen a child before and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite sure what he was supposed to do with one: eat it, ignore it or kick it down the stairs. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Are you allowed out? Why? What have you doneÃ¢â¬ ¦? Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m a JewÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re not supposed to be friends, you and me. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re meant to be enemies. Did you know that? * clearly proves that there is a sense of the friends belonging to a relationship however there is always going to be the idea of not belonging to each other because of the cultural and moral situations they are put in, hence why they believe that they are meant to be Ã¢â¬Å"enemiesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He used to be a doctor once, but gave it all up to peel potatoes. Ã¢â¬ * The destruction that is caused upon a miserable man, because of the beliefs he has. There is a lack of integrity making him become their slave as he is a JewÃ html http://www. enotes. om/the-boy-in-the-striped-pajamas http://www. bookrags. com/studyguide-the-boy-in-the-striped-pyjamas/ The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas is a poignant tale of events, Written by John Boyne and published in 2006 by David Fickling Books, the story was made into a major motion picture in 2008 based on the events occurred during WWII through the eyes of an eight-year-old boy. Bruno i s the bright-eyed son of a German soldier. When Bruno's father is relocated, the entire family has to move to the countryside. Although Bruno is proud that his father is a soldier, he lets his disappointment of leaving his friends show.There is a constant use of dramatic irony, through the idea that Bruno does not understand or know about the life they are entering however there is a common background understanding that all viewers will understand. This is evident when Bruno notices what he believes to be a farm with strange farmers who only wear striped pajamas. Whereas, we understand the reality of it, in which the farm is a concentration camp in which Bruno's father has been put in charge of. Fueled by curiosity, Bruno defies his mother and ends up at a corner of the fence that is not guarded.Once there, he meets Shmuel, a Jewish boy the same age as Bruno. The boys become friends quickly, even though Bruno has been told by his teacher and a frightening young Lieutenant Kotler tha t Jews are Ã¢â¬Å"evil. Ã¢â¬ Mark Herman, director of films such as Brassed Off and Hope Springs gives us a profound tale of innocence. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas could be the most heartbreaking film about the holocaust since Schindler's List. Although there is no physical violence shown in the movie, outrage at the injustice of it all is still felt; the boys should be able to play with each other without fear of getting in trouble.Children should not have to go through what Shmuel does just because they are different. It is the idea that there is a visual confusion and the dramatic irony is so important in conveying the injustices. There are times when Bruno's courage fails him. When Lieutenant Kotler asks him if he gave Shmuel food, he denies the truth so he won't get in trouble. But the audience can forgive him for these mistakes just as quickly as Shmuel does. With the idea of dramatic irony again, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the concept in which the audience takes many journeys of the b oyÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of belonging to each other and to their friendship however not belonging as utcasts. Bruno's innocence is what makes The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas so Stirring. When he asks his father what is burned in the chimneys, the audience feels a sense of turmoil because they know the truth. Bruno just doesn't understand what he's seeing. It explores the beauty of a child's innocence in a time of war, the common desire we all have for friendship, and the fencesÃ¢â¬âboth literal and figurativeÃ¢â¬âthat we must all navigate and choose whether or not to break down.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Growing up, students were taught to get a higher education in order to make a comfortable living for them and their families. Now, those college graduates are crippled with large amounts of debilitating student loans and are unable to start a family of their own. According to the credit bureau TransUnion, the average student loan debt carried by each borrower has risen 30% to $23,829 in the past five years. These graduates should be stimulating the economy by buying cars and houses, but instead they are sending their paychecks to the bank to pay back their enormous loans. The aggregated amount of student debt has soared over the past several years due to so many people deciding to go back to college after being laid off from their jobs, a rapid rise in college tuition, and schools that give out worthless degrees. The New York Times states that in the 1970s, the median wage was 40% higher for college graduates than for those with just a high school diploma; today, the wage premium has risen to about 80%. Although there are options to get a degree quickly, it is not always the best idea. It is concerning that some schools promise a degree in less time, yet charge the same amount as a four year university. The Art Institute is one of the biggest offenders. They offer a three year culinary program that costs close to $100,000 while the graduates only average about $12 per hour after graduation. It is impossible to pay back those types of loans with basically a minimum wage job. Also, possible employers would much rather hire someone who has been studying the subject for four to six years rather than just a few months, so it can be very challenging for those students to find a job. The fact that our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s student loan debt is currently valued at $1 trillion dollars, while the cost of tuition is rapidly increasing, is the most concerning effect of this crisis. Today, about half of college graduates are either underemployed or do not have a job at all. The tide is not going to turn until the job market improves. One of the problems in the job market is that jobs are not opening up as quickly as they should because people are pushing back retirement to help pay for their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s loans. Students fresh out of college are putting off getting married and starting families because they do not have the secure job future they were promised would come with their college degree. Families have also decreased in size because parents are not able to afford as many children. Public schools are overflowing with students because the alternative private schools are just too expensive. This debilitating debt could cause the millennials, people aged 18 to 34, to be one of the first generations in America to not make a better living than their parents did. It is not ethical to force such a large amount of debt on an 18-year-old who has never even had a credit card before. Too many schools use students as pawns to make thousands of dollars than actually helping them succeed and become a member of a functioning society. The student loan debt problem is going to continue to rise dramatically unless we stop the problem where it started- the greedy universities and Ã¢â¬Å"for-profitÃ¢â¬ schools. Our government needs to make laws and restrictions based on how much a school can charge for tuition. Because filing for bankruptcy with student loans is impossible, the schools continue to raise the cost of tuition knowing that they will most likely get their money in the end. Now, we have schools charging ridiculous amounts for a mediocre degree while the average graduate makes about $12 an hour. There is no way in the world that graduate would be able to pay off those gargantuan student loans without having more than one job. Tuition should be a percentage of the average income of an employer with that degree so that it is possible to pay back in a reasonable amount of time. If schools went back to offering a great education for an affordable price our country would have a much easier time fixing our limping economy.
Chanelle Samuel The Inevitable Progression of Complex Societies Ancient civilizations and the civilizations of today all share a commonality. That commonality is that all civilizations seem to go through this pattern of rise and fall. The civilization will grow, prosper, accumulate wealth and power, but eventually due to a variety of factors including natural disasters, economic decline, invasion, and so on, the civilization will slowly lose power and land and relinquish any sort of ties that once held them together.This is clearly evident in most civilizations, and the civilizations that it is not clearly evident in are those that can technically be called civilizations today. But since they are still civilizations of today, the cycle or rise and fall may not be completer yet. This rise and fall of civilizations is an inevitable process that continues to be a factor in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. For the purpose of this essay I would like to clarify the definitions of terms that I will be using.The first is the term rise and fall. I clarify rise to be when a group of people gains power over their geography and environment, are unified in some way, and have the ability to not only sustain their power but have the potential to expand that power and influence outwards. Fall will be defined as when a group of people have no potential to expand, are losing their sustained power, and when there is no chance for them to rise again.A harder term to define is that of civilization, but for the purpose of this essay civilization will be defined as occupying a geographical area, the defining feature of how that civilization responds to the challenges from their location, maintain a social organization (that may change over time), a common religion, a form of communication, and an economic system (that changes over time). So form this point onwards these are the meanings of the terms I will be using. Form the beginnings of time humans have aggregated together, and lived within f amily groupings.These groupings at the beginning were very small, usually only containing of one family. But as humans began to learn, with the innovations of new tools and ideas were formed, as well as the ability to travel in larger numbers emerged. These were known as the hunter-gatherer civilizations. They were nomads who continually migrated in search of food resources with the changing of the seasons. From natural progression some of these peoples evolved to stay in one area and cultivate crops that beforehand they had mostly gathered. They began to domesticate regional plants and animals found in the area.This transfer from nomadic peoples to agricultural settlements was the first real implications of a true civilization. One of the first agricultural settlements that expanded and became a prosperous civilization was that of the Indus River Valley in present day Pakistan and India. It was built on the floodplains of the Indus and Saraswati Rivers, which created a problem as l eaders would have to deal with environmental factors such as intense flooding during the rainy season. The civilization was at its height from twenty-six hundred to nineteen hundred B.C. E. , and contained as many as five million people. Its economy was based heavily on trade which they prospered from due to their valuable commodities of ivory, cotton, hardwoods, and precious stones. They also had a unified culture, art and script. As I have outlined here the Indus River Valley clearly meets the criteria of a civilization. Although the historical evidence for this society is scarce as we cannot interpret their script, it is clear that this society expanded and flourished with the help of an extensive trade network and a fortified city.This would constitute the civilizations rise to power and extension of that power from trade alliances. This led to the height of the civilization which was showcased with the societies planned streets, with complicated plumbing, bath houses, and assem bly halls. But by eighteen hundred B. C. E. the civilization began to collapse. The most likely reason for the collapse was due to environmental factors including constant river flooding which could be due to increasing temperatures that caused the Himalayan glaciers to increase water in the rivers.This then affected their ability to cultivate crops and had an impact on sustaining high population numbers and the effectiveness of trade. There also may have been earthquakes which changed the landscape and may have altered the course of the rivers. The Indus river Valley clearly follows the rise and fall cycle of civilizations. It came to prominence beside the Indus River and based its agriculture on the fertile flood plains of the river. It grew in power and influence as the wealth of commodities they held were traded with neighbouring peoples.But environmental factors caused strain on the civilization that over time they were not able to solve or cope with which led to the eventual d ecline and fall of this once thriving civilization. Another example of civilizations that followed the same course were the shorted-lived civilizations of West Africa. These civilizations prospered in sub-Saharan Africa around the Senegal and Niger Rivers. The first civilization to rise there was that of Ancient Ghana. It developed around the fourth and fifth century C. E. from nomadic peoples known as the Soninke banding together for protection.They rose to power as the kings of Ghana maintained a monopoly on the trade of gold. They were in a key location which contained some of the largest gold resources of that time, and as civilizations in the Mediterranean based their currency on gold, it was in high demand. This caused Ghana to rely heavily on trade for their economy, as Arabs from Northern Africa crossed the Saharan desert to bring goods from elsewhere and trade for gold and salt. But Ghana began to weaken in power as the trade routes shifted further east and also lost its tr ading monopoly on gold.In addition other peoples envied GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth and pressured Ghana with attacks that further weakened the empire. Soon after, Ancient Ghana was overtaken and swallowed into the Mali Empire, which had the same characteristics of the Ghana Empire. It also relied heavily on trade and especially that of gold and salt. And similar to Ghana the Mali Empire slowly weakened and another empire the Songhay Empire exerted influenced and encompassed Mali into their empire. The West African civilizations are characterized by short periods of power, and eventual decline and take over by another society.That is why some people and I believe that those three civilizations can really be considered as one larger civilization. When taken as one civilization, you can think of Ghana and Mali and Songhay as three peaks of this one larger civilization, but as Songhay began to lose control of the trade routes another rising power from around todays Morocco caused the final fa ll of the West African civilization. West Africa fits in as a civilization by having common language roots of the Mande and Arabic, as well as a tolerant religion of a mixture of Islam and polytheism.They were located in western sub-Saharan Africa and maintained a heavy reliance on trade for their economies. But since they relied so heavily on the trade routes through the Saharan desserts once they lost control of those routes, they eventually diminished in power, and were invaded by other powers. The third civilization I would like to discuss is the Mayan Civilization. Its geographic location encompasses todays Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico. It was established in one hundred C. E. in an inhospitable landscape.The culture was undoubtedly polytheistic as there were enormous amounts of natural disasters in this area which could be why a lot of their gods are angry and vengeful gods. Their economy was based on trading with the peoples of the north. They also established religious centers and the formation of city-states. Mayan society was very advanced but all technological innovations pertained to religion and appeasement of their gods. They had a unified written script which allowed them to communicate. The height of Mayan civilization was in three hundred C.E. and was followed by a period of decline. There are many factors that caused the decline of the Mayan civilization. Firstly, environmental factors played a large role as a period of drought commenced after many successful rainy seasons which lead to huge increases in the population. So when the drought hit and crops began to fail, there just wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough food to support such a large population. They also used slash and burn agriculture which only supports crops for a short period of time before that same land becomes arid and unusable.Also the arrival of the Spanish in Peru lead to the spread of epidemic diseases that the Mayans had no immunity for including small pox, measles, and chicken po x. Internal rivalries were also present which caused conflict and instability within the society. The Spanish also conquered territory and with their superior weapons and military they were able to defeat the Mayans. At the height of Mayan Civilization it is obvious that this civilization was strong and very advanced. But, like the other civilizations a variety of factors came about that lead to the decline and further more fall of the Mayan Civilization.However there are still people of Mayan descent that I do believe protect the language and customs, but Mayan civilization no longer has its own economic base or power and influence over other peoples or on the environment. And lastly, I would like to look at Roman Civilization. The Roman Empire was founded in eight century B. C. E. , and was originally a small city-state ruled by a single king. However, in five hundred and nine B. C. E. the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s aristocrats deposed the king and instituted a republic. When the republican co nstitution was in place, Roman civilization really began to rise in prominence.Between the fourth and second centuries B. C. E. , the people of Rome transformed their city from a small vulnerable city-state to the center of an enormous empire. In early Rome, polytheism was common, which was their belief in many Roman gods, but as they conquered lands new religions were brought into the empire including Judaism and Christianity. They consolidated their power in the Italian peninsula, and expanded outwards to conquer lands. They absorbed the land they conquered and allowed those peoples to govern their own internal affairs, and if they wanted, to gain Roman citizenship.This expansion brought wealth and power to Rome, but also increased class tensions where the disparity between the poor and the wealthy, and also administering to all the conquered lands began to strain resources. The Roman Empire was based on trade, and since they had such a large territory there was a lot of specializ ation that allowed them to trade in many goods. But with the over reach of the Roman Empire and the strain on resources, the Roman Empire was just too large to control and maintain. Internal tensions and attacks from outsiders also led to the fall of Rome.I have just outlined four cases that come from completely different areas of the world in which civilizations have risen, reached some sort of peak, and then declined and eventually diminished altogether. There are many more examples of civilizations throughout history that have also followed this pattern, but does outlining the instances in which these civilizations became established and then subsequent fall really explains why rise and fall is inevitable in all civilizations? I do not believe it explains the inevitability part that I have mentioned.I think in order to really understand why civilizations are bound to repeat this process lies within the human psyche. Humans are essentially the most complex species on the planet. I t is our brain and the ability to make tools that sets us apart from all other species and has allowed us to grow and develop in the way that we have. But humans also have another side which is not as bright. It is our consumerism, greed, and the belief that our species is the superior species and therefore we have the right to do what we will.This belief in superiority and greed has led to an evolution where we do not take into account the environment and the land that gives us sustenance and the ability to breathe clean air. This dominance over the environment and superiority has directed many civilizations to their downfall due to overconfidence, overextension of their power, and overharvesting of their resources. An example I have already spoken about is Rome. The need to conquer more land, and their greed in gaining wealth and power by taking otherÃ¢â¬â¢s resources only amounted in weakening the empire to a state that left them vulnerable to invasion and collapse.In Mesoameri ca civilizations like the Mayans, used the slash and burn technique in agriculture which had devastating effects on the land. The destruction of forests for agricultural land releases a large amount of stored carbon that will all be released in the atmosphere. It also extinguishes nutrient cycling by creating crop land since no decomposition of organic matters occur, the soils then become very poor and arid and makes way for soil erosion, and can also lead to desertification. The biosphere actually has a carrying capacity for each environment.A carrying capacity is the amount of individuals that can live off the environment in a certain area. Once that plateau is reached there will be no more food, water, or shelter for those excess people. The earth cannot just contain an infinite amount of organisms. It has a limit to the amount it can supply. Once that plateau is hit there is no possibility of growth or extension of power and influence unless people find a way to live sustainably . The progression of civilizations will not overcome the rise and fall course of development unless humans make a shift in their thought processes.As presented in this essay the evidence of rise and fall within a civilization is sound. From past civilizations the overexpansion, internal dissent, invasion, or environmental factors have been the cause of decline in all those civilizations. In the civilizations that still exist today; the human beliefs are still the same. There is still this want to expand, to exhibit a greater power or influence over others, and to gain in wealth. This consumer way of life is the mindset that leads to declines of civilizations. The exploitation of the environment including agriculture, fishing, metals, oil, nd logging is causing a degradation of the environment and could lead to the collapse of the last remaining civilizations. Unless there is a switch to sustainable living in which the environment can recuperate and replenish, there will be nothing l eft to consume and nothing left to form the basis of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global economic society. Therefore all civilizations need to live and grow with the thought that natural resources are not infinite but in fact are running out very fast. If humans continue to live as greed-filled, corporation based unsustainable societies then it is inevitable that they will all fall.
Friday, September 13, 2019
In what way and with what kind of strategic choice does the Apple Inc. use to entry into the Nigerian market - Assignment Example Moreover, its establishment into the international computer market brought further success to the company. Apple is significantly known for its iPod, iPad, iPhone, iTunes etc. The company has also manufactured revolutionary OSX operating systems and Mac Laptops (ERGONOMICS, 2013). In the late December 2012, Apple Inc. made a significant entrance into the Nigerian Computer Market as per its international expansion strategy. There are certain variables which drives the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s successful expansion strategies simultaneously increasing its market share while successfully competing with competitors. Apple Inc. provides remarkable services to its users in Nigeria apart from the wide range of products. These services include support programs on how to use Apple products, manuals provided by the company so as to troubleshoot the problems associated with any of the sold items, technical guidance and system specifications, downloading options of latest software and updates for existing programs and most significantly it provides community facility to its users which enables them to share and discus their ideas and issues with other Apple users (SUPPORT, 2013). This paper aims to critically discuss and evaluate the strategic approach used by Apple Inc. so as to enter into the Nigerian Market. Additionally, it will highlight the reasons for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s international expansion and its historical performance throughout the world. Apple Inc. has one of the finest and most advanced range of computers which enables the company to successfully run its strategic activities all over the globe, and therefore these products along with the services shall be discussed. Moreover, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share and competitive position within the industry shall be analyzed. Whenever a multinational corporation enters into a comparatively new market it has certain reasons and underlying causes for its