Saturday, August 31, 2019
In the first years, Red LobsterÃ¢â¬â¢s positioning is Ã¢â¬Å"affordableÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"freshÃ¢â¬ seafood. This positioning last from its start till about 2004. In 2004 after Kim Lopdrup took over as president, he was shocked that consumers put Red Lobster as Ã¢â¬Å"low endÃ¢â¬ places that serving mass-produced, frozen seafood. So he launched a three phased plan to reposition Red Lobster. Phase 1 involved basic operational improvement. Phase 2 is repositioning around Ã¢â¬Å"freshnessÃ¢â¬ . Customers had vague understanding of freshness and they thought Red LobsterÃ¢â¬â¢s product not fresh mostly because too much fried items on the menu. This phase played the most important role in LopdrupÃ¢â¬â¢s plan (initiated in 2004), and de-emphasizing all fried items and introducing wood-fire grilling are most effective elements. In these ways, Consumer Needs were satisfied and Company Skills were improved. Phase 3 is re-modeling the restaurants, the target of which is becoming nicer than ordinary casual dining but still approachable. This phase started in 2008, and was supposed to redone all restaurants by 2014. As a results, customer perceptions that Red Lobster Ã¢â¬Å"has food that is freshÃ¢â¬ had increased significantly according to surveys in 2008. By 2010, internal research found that guest satisfaction was up 14% to 78% excellentÃ¢â¬ . Everything seemed good at that point. There are something worth notice: the new 2008 ads (as current ads in question 2) followed the same model of 2004 ones, but focus shift from Ã¢â¬Å"wood fire grillingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬ fresh fishÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"new grilling methodÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"freshnessÃ¢â¬ . That means they were introducing new category of cooking method and food that not constrained as Ã¢â¬Å"seafoodÃ¢â¬ , a shift in product. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s extension of introducing wood fire grilling to reposition. In 2008, Copernicus Company conduct a study to uncover some psychographic segments, and summarized Red LobsterÃ¢â¬â¢s customers into 5 categories: Experientials, Indulgents, Traditionalists, Eclectics and Frugals. Lopdrup was facing a balance between building stronger connection with Experientials and losing part of Indulgent and Frugals. According to form above, the revenues gained from new Experientials are as twice as the combination of loss from Indulgents and Frugals. Besides that, Experientials consume much more alcohol, which is more profitable than food. Former calculation showed an optimistic result to us, so Lopdrup should make Experientials the target segment. He also should modify Red LobsterÃ¢â¬â¢s positioning accordingly, but do it gradually lest go chapter 11 in the process as K-Mart. The scale of modifying can be described by the answer ofÃ questions at the end of the case: (questions omitted here) Segmentation: According to the former paragraph, experientials should represent the new Red Lobster target customer. Positioning: Red Lobster need to change positioning but not too much. The rise of aquaculture had led to dramatic declines in the cost of seafood, so Ã¢â¬Å"approachable seafoodÃ¢â¬ is not as appealing as before. Red Lobster need to find a new positioning, while keeping Ã¢â¬Å"freshÃ¢â¬ (according to Exhibit 6A, freshness is the most important factor when customers select seafood). Exhibit 6A also showed that customers think cleanliness, quality and taste/preparation are very important, so Ã¢â¬Å"tasty fresh seafoodÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"best fresh seafoodÃ¢â¬ are all good options. Promotion: Current ads fit the positioning the marketing team wanted, as the focus was Ã¢â¬Å"freshnessÃ¢â¬ . Traditional price promotions should be scaled back, shown in Exhibit 6A price is one of the least concerned factor. Price: Simply raising prices is not a good idea for Red Lobster. Although Experientials are important, Indulgents and Frugals are large in customer percentage. Using price discrimination can be a good strategy: keep some cheap items in the menu, while introducing more expensive items (including desserts, appetizers and wine). In this way, most patrons can be kept while revenue would raise. Product: Adding better wine selection is a good idea, since experientials could be attracted in this way while other customers have other options. Broadening the menu further beyond seafood to steal share from other premium casual chains is also feasible, the success of Ã¢â¬Å"wood fire grillingÃ¢â¬ verifies that. Similarly, emphasizing on wine in menu, making some location vary its ambience by time of day are all good idea for the same reason as illustrated before. Place: To target experientials, re-modeling is necessary. From Exhibit 13, we can know that re-modeling won great appreciation. Most customers would enjoy better atmosphere. Moreover, re-modeling were operated after hours, soÃ business wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be disturbed. The most important reason is experientials are motivated by Culinary Expertise, sophisticated, upscale atmosphere (shown in Table A, p8 of case). To conclude, all the strategies are to attract experientials without losing other customers.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The models are based on the average cost approach to price setting but differ slightly In detail. The paper Initially examines the models from an analytical point of view. The paper then describes a simulation model used to evaluate the effect of both decision approaches over time. While the models are analytically similar the simulation results show that the long run behavior of the firm is significantly different under each approach. This work is part of the author's PhD research and represents ongoing rather than completed work. Please do not quote without prior permission. IntroductionThis paper continues the author's examination of firm growth using analytical and simulation modeling methods and which has already been discussed in Brady (1999; AAA, b and c; 2001). This paper specifically examines firm growth under two different managerial policies both of which use the average cost including demand pricing assumption discussed in Brady (2001). Methodology Two models identical in all respects but one were used in this research. Both models used the average cost including demand approach IEEE. Firms produce product at a certain cost and then set out to sell that product at a marked up price.The models defer in the policy adopted by the firm when production exceeds demand for their product. The firm in model A sells whatever quantity it can at Its marked up price as documented In Brady (2001). The firm In model B sells the quantity It produces at the price the market will bear [e. It sells at the price determined by the firm's demand curve. Model A Is more realistic In that firms Immediately realism that they have exceeded their demand curve In that they are unable to sell product at the marked up price and either they Increase Inventory or goods perish.Model B Is less realistic In that firm's cannot determine price with certainty from the demand curve (they do not know their demand curve with certainty): in practice firms must determine this price by some ki nd of atonement mechanism. Note Tanat tons osculation does not model ten atonement process itself; instead it determines the new price directly from the demand curve. In summary, when production exceeds demand, under model A the firm sells less product than it anticipates but holds its price whereas under model B the firm sells all it produces but at a lower price.Specifically model B differs from model A as follows: the demand function (P = a Ã¢â¬â BC) used is the inverse function to that used in model A (Q = a Ã¢â¬â BP); these two expressions are functionally equivalent. The models also differ in that in model A units sold were equal to the units produced or units demanded, whichever is the lower; in model B the price at which goods are sold is equal to the marked up price or the demand price (e. The price given by the demand function), whichever is the lower. In all other respects, including the values of all parameters, the models are identical.In the case of both models d emand is held constant throughout the simulation Ã¢â¬Ëe. The demand curve does not shift upwards or downwards during the simulation. Also, depreciation has been set to zero during the simulation and fixed costs remain constant throughout the simulation (IEEE. There is no step increase in fixed costs as described in Brady, 2001). Results The results of the simulation for model A are shown in figures 1, 2, 3 and 4. Examining firstly firm size, as measured by capital, we see in figure 1 that the firm increases in size until approximately period 50 and then firm size remains more or sees constant.To see why this is so we examine firm retained earnings as shown in figure 2. Here we see retained earnings increase monotonically until period 42 and then decrease asymptotically to zero. Figure 3 shows both revenue and total cost and clearly demonstrates this decline in margin. Here we see the firm maintaining its margin percentage until period 42; margin then declines dramatically until ap proximately period 60; margin continues declining asymptotically to zero. 01 2 0 1 Capital Accumulated_loss 125021002 Time Figure 1. Model A: Capital Retained_earnings 0050100 Figure 2.Model A: retained earnings This decline in earnings is due to the fact that production exceeded demand in period 42 as shown in figure 4. From that period onwards the firm incurred an increasing cost of overproduction and gradually its margin eroded completely. Although the change in period 42 is abrupt the firm comes smoothly to an equilibrium state (although unfortunately for the firm this equilibrium state is one of zero profitability). On the positive side, the firm never makes a loss as it stops increasing production at a point before its price drops below cost.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
English Deutsch Erklarung UNIT 18 Beispiele Market leader Marktfuhrer someone or something that is winning during a race or other situation where people are competing A companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sales expressed as a percentage of the total market Short-term tactics designed to stimulate stronger sales of a product The situation in which there is only one seller of a product; a market in a particular product in which a single producer can fix an artificial price. Companies offering similar goods or services to the same set of customers A short and easily memorized phrase used in advertising The division of a market into submarkets according to the needs or buying habits of different groups of potential customers A small and specific market segment; an area or position which is exactly suitable for a small group of the same type Microsoft is a world leader in software design. Market share Marktanteil Promotion, Warenangebot Monopol, Monopolstellung The company has increased its market share. Promotion There was a promotion in the supermarket and they were giving away free glasses of wine. The government is determined to protect its tobacco monopoly. Monopoly Competitors Konkurrenten Werbespruch, Motto, Slogan Marktsegmentierung, Marktunterteilung Nische Their prices are better than any of their competitors. an advertising slogan Slogan Market segmentation City Insurance segmented the market into three by issuing three types of policy. Niche an ecological niche. 1 Differential advantage Turnover Differentialvorteil, -vorzug Umsatz Rezession Perfekter Wettbewerb A factor which makes you superior to competitors in a certain respect A businessÃ¢â¬â¢s total sales revenue A period during which an economy is working below its potential When products are homogeneous, and there are a great many firms too small to have any influence on the market price, and firms can easily enter and exit the industry Situation in which there is only one buyer Industry in which the efficient existence of more than one producer is impossible; examples include public utilities such as water, gas and electricity, where it would be inefficient to have several competing companies laying their own networks of pipes or cables. When many producers of slightly differentiated products are able to sell them at well above their marginal costs. A concentrated market dominated by a few large suppliers. This is very frequent in manufacturing because of economies of scale and the cost barriers of entering and industry Factors which cause the average cost of producing something to fall as output increases. Large supermarkets have high turnovers (= their goods sell very quickly). The country is sliding into the depths of (a) recession. The two companies are in competition with each other. Recession Perfect competition Monopsony Natural monopoly Monopson Naturliches Monopol Monopolistic competition Monopolistischer Wettbewerb Oligopoly Oligopol Economies of scale Massenproduktionsvorteile 2 Barriers to entry Zugangsbeschrankungen Economic or technical factors that make it difficult or impossible for firms to enter a market or compete with existing suppliers. One in which a market leader can indicate its preferred price to smaller competitors. Dominant-firm oligopoly Cartel Kartell Group of producers or sellers who fix prices and quantities in order to avoid competition and increase profits. This is illegal in many countries, most notably the USA an oil cartel 3 UNIT 19 Innovation Innovation, Neuerung Streuen, aufteilen Fusionieren, verschmelzen, Uberfall, Angriff Designing new products and bringing then to the market To expand into new fields To unite, combine, amalgamate, integrate or join together Buying another companyÃ¢â¬â¢s shares on the stock exchange, hoping to persuade enough other shareholders to sell to take control of the company A public offer to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s shareholders to buy their shares, at a particular price during a particular period, so as to acquire a company To merge with or take over other firms producing the same type of goods or services Joining with firms in other stages of the production or sale of a product A merger with or the acquisition of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s suppliers A merger with or the acquisition of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing outlets Combined production that is greater than the sum of the separate parts Team work at its best results in a synergy that can be very productive. The company made a takeover bid for a riva l firm. the latest innovations in computer technology To diversify Many wheat farmers have begun to diversify into other forms of agriculture. They decided to merge the two companies into one. To merge A raid Takeover bid Ubernahmeangebot Horizontal Horizontal, waagrecht Vertikal, senkrecht Rucklaufig, ruckwarts gerichtet Vorwarts, voraus Synergie Draw a horizontal line across the bottom of the page. vertical lines/stripes Vertical Backward Forward Synergy 4 UNIT 23 Printing money and destroying it Setting interest rates, ceilings & floors Commercial banking supervision Controlling the amount of banknotes in circulation Establishing maximum and minimum lending rates, thereby controlling the credit system Ensuring that banks have a sufficient liquidity ratio to allow customers to withdraw their deposits when they want Intervening on foreign exchange markets, buying or selling large amounts of the national currency, to prevent major fluctuations Lending money to a commercial bank in danger of going bankrupt Selling government bonds to commercial banks or buying them back, in order to alter the amount of credit the banks can offer (and thereby alter the money supply) Einkommensteuer Direkte Steuer (nach oben) gestaffelte Steuer Indirekte Steuer Mehrwertsteuer, Umsatzsteuer The tax people pay on their wages and salaries A tax on wages and salaries or on company profits A tax levied at a higher rate on higher incomes A tax paid on property, sales transactions, imports, and so on A tax collected at each stage of production, excluding the already-taxed costs from previous Exchange rates supervision Act as a lender of los resort Open market operations Income tax Direct tax Progressive tax Indirect tax Value-added tax 5 tages Capital gains tax Kapitalertragssteuer Erbschafts- und Schenkungssteuer Reichens teuer, Vermogenssteuer Steuerhinterziehung (legale) Steuervermeidung Abschreibung Abhaltung, negativer Anreiz rucklaufig Konsum, Verbrauch, Verzerr selbststandig Staatliche Sozialversicherung Leistungsanreiz, Vorteil Profits made by selling assets are generally liable to Gifts and inheritances over a certain value are often liable to The annual tax imposed on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s fortunes (in some countries) Making false declarations to the tax authorities Reducing the amount of tax you pay to a legal minimum Reducing the value of a fixed asset, by charging it against profits Something which discourages an action An adjective describing a tax that is proportionally higher for people with less money Spending money to uy things, rather than saving it; Spending on goods and services Working for yourself, being your own boss A tax on incomes that pays for sickness benefit, unemployment benefit, and old-age pensions Non-financial benefits or advantages of a job A way to delay the payment of t ax to a later time Steuerlich absetzbar Describes expenditures that can be taken away Capital transfer tax Wealth tax Tax evasion Tax avoidance Depreciation Disincentive Regressive Consumption Self-employed National insurance Perks Tax shelters Tax-deductible 6 from taxable income or profits Tax havens Steueroasen A country offering very low tax rates to foreign businesses 7 UNIT 25 Expectations Mortgage Erwartungen, Aussichten Hypothek, Verpfanden Mieten, Pacht Output, Leistung Investition, Anlage Industrielle Jemanden entlassen, feuern demografisch Einschrankung Annahmen Ware, Handelsware Ausgleich, Gleichgewicht Beliefs about what will happen in the future Money borrowed in order to buy a house or flat or apartment Money paid for the use of a house or flat owned by somebody else The amount of something produced by a company, a country, and so on Spending on new machines, factories, and so on Owners or managers of manufacturing companies To dismiss employees Concerning the number of births, deaths, population movements, and so on An absence of luxury and comfort something that you accept as true without question or proof a substance or product that can be traded, bought or sold a state of balance People tend to make assumptions about you when you have a disability. The country's most valuable commodities include tin and diamonds. The disease destroys much of the inner-ear, disturbing the animal's equilibrium. Rent (CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s) output Investment Industrialists Lay off Demographic Austerity Assumptions Commodity Equilibrium 8 Exchange Tauschen exogen Information Ressourcen, Mittel when you give something to someone and they give you something else They were given food and shelter in exchange for work. Exogenous Information facts about a situation, person, event, etc a useful or valuable possession or quality of a country, organization or person I read an interesting bit/piece of information in the newspaper. The country's greatest resource is the dedication of its workers. Resources 9 UNIT 27 Visible trade Invisible imports and exports Barter or countertrade Balance of trade Warenverkehr, sichtbarer Handel Inlandische Dienstleistung an Auslander, unsichtbarer Handel Tauschhandel Handelsbilanz Zahlungsbilanz Trade in goods Trade in services (banking, insurance, tourism, and so on) Direct exchanges of goods, without the use of money The difference between what a country receives and pays for its exports and imports of goods The difference between a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s total earnings from exports and its total expenditure on imports The (impossible) situation in which a country is completely self-sufficient and has no foreign trade A positive balance of trade or payments A negative balance of trade or payments Selling goods abroad at (or below) cost price Imposing trade barriers in order to restrict imports Taxes charged on imports Quantitative limits on the import of particular products or commodities Balance of payments Autarky Autarkie, wirtschaftliche Unabhangigkeit Ubersch uss, Mehrbetrag Defizit, Verlust, Mangel Preisunterbietung Protektionismus, Schutzzollpolitik Tarife, Zolle Quoten Surplus Deficit Dumping Protectionism Tariffs Quotas 10 Infant industries Kleinkinderbranchen UNIT 29 Market opportunity Marktchance Menschen mit hohem Eigenkapital risikoscheu Borsennotiert, notiert Gebuhr, Entgelt, Honorar Eigenkapital Laufende Kosten, variable Kosten Marktdurchdringung Aufsichtsratsmitglied The possibility of providing a new product or service to satisfy particular needs People with a lot of money at their disposal Describes investors who do not want to take risks with their money Describes companies whose shares are traded on the stock exchange Money paid to professional people for a job of work done Another word for stocks or shares: a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s own capital The day-to-day expenses of operating a business. The attempt to increase or maximize sales, and get a large number of customers Directors who do not work full time for a company, but advise it about strategic issues Individual consumers, households, companies, organizations, etc. Vorausschau Seeing what will happen in the future To do what you prefer to do, at the lowest High net worth individuals Risk averse Listed Fee Equity Running costs Market penetration Non-executive directors Economic agents Foresight To maximize utility 11 possible cost Expectations Erwartungen, Aussichten Existenzgrunder Wachsamkeit, Aufmerksamkeit Unwissenheit Bewusstsein What people think or anticipate will happen in the future A person who starts a business Being quick to see, understand or act in new situations Not knowing about something Knowing or being conscious of something Entrepreneur Alertness Ignorance Awareness 12
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Communications. The origin of capitalism Summary. By Ellen Meiksins Wood 17 page reading - Research Paper Example 4. English tenants were stimulated to enhance productivity while capitalism was developing in contrast to the aristocratic culture in which the rulers oppressed the peasants rather than building up on productivity. 5. Capitalist development promoted the growth of independent commodity production in the 16th century England by transforming the feudalism-based relation between landlords and peasants into market-mediated relation. 6. The peasants, as producers, could establish capitalism back in medieval England only if given chance by their landlords who mostly tried to squeeze more surplus labor out of them without rewarding them. 7. In France, the peasants had easier access to the property and firmer hold on it, so they had no trouble in establishing capitalist mode of development by resisting the increasing pressures from landlords. 8. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s view of property, which lays stress on productivity and labor value, laid foundation for the industrial capitalism. 9. The class strug gle or conflict over property rights between the ruling class and the poor subordinates seen in the 17th century English Revolution also contributed in developing capitalism.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Tax memo - Essay Example In the case of Acme Corporation and its shareholders, the redemption exercise may imply one or more tests, usually referred to as the three major tests. First is the complete redemption test. Here, there will be an absolute redemption of every stock possessed by the shareholder. Second is the substantially disproportionate test where the vending shareholder must not possess as much as 50 percent of the voting power following the redemption exercise. In addition, the owners voting stock in the company need to be not as much as 80 percent of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s aggregate voting stock after the redemption exercise. Third is what has been referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"not essentially equivalent to a dividend testÃ¢â¬ (Ronald, 48). Here, the implication is that the redemptions need not be equal to the dividend issued by the company. It is important to note that the shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s constructive, direct and indirect ownership can be considered in the above explained tests. If a shareho lder meets the above tests, the price that the company redeems the ownership will be treated like a normal exchange of sale and this will be recognized as if the owner was only passing this to another person or a third party. If the tests are not met, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s redemption price will be taken like the passing was made to another shareholder. Tax cost of a redemption to shareholders does start with if the transaction succeeds for sales or interchanged treatment, also Smith should confirm whether Acme Corporation has accrued return and earnings. If Acme does not have returns and earnings or the company has never acquired another company through merging, which had profit and earnings then the divided treatment cannot come into being from redemption. Normally dividends shared among its shareholders are usually treated as non-taxable return of capital to the point of accustomed foundation of stock, then capital growth from estimated nature of
Business enviroment - ECONOMICS - Essay Example The UK construction industry has witnessed a fall of nearly two percent in construction activity during 2010 compared with last years 12 per cent drop and is expected to remain in recession. It is estimated that by the end of 2010, construction industry will have lost Ã £16 billion of work in just three years and the growth is not expected to return until 2011 and even then it is forecasted to be relatively subdued at just one per cent per year in the consecutive three years coming. An interesting factor to be observed here is regarding the private Vs public construction companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ progress. Over the past one and half year, private sector construction fell by almost 20 percent, losing approximately Ã £14bn of work and a further fall of four per cent is anticipated during 2010. However, the public sector construction, on the other hand, rose due to governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s fiscal stimulus and contractors on government frameworks were able to take advantage of some of the falls experienced from the private sector. There are high chances that this trend is set to reverse in the near term as a result of economic recovery set to lead to a rise in construction funded by the private sector. On the other hand, the state of the public finances is likely to lead to a deep fall in public spending on construction. Critical fact lies in spending on public schools and housing, as well as on energy and transport infrastructure and they are not cut sharply, otherwise recovery for the construction industry might be delayed and consequently, the economic recovery in the UK might be severely hindered. 1. With some new contracts signed, in addition to existing work brought forward through governments fiscal stimulus, orders rose 60 per cent during 2009 and although the number of roads projects signed in the last first quarter of 2010 has remained broadly flat compared to
Monday, August 26, 2019
Reading reflection - Essay Example BarrÃ¢â¬â¢s approach is clear and considerate in relation to the vital requirements of an actor. Chapter 14 of his book, Acting for the Camera, talks about how a person can successfully remember his/her lines in acting by thinking about both their roles and their partnersÃ¢â¬â¢. It is much easier to think about the scene than remember the lines. Also, when a person considers the roles played by their partners, as well as their partners lines, it will be easier for the individual to remember his/her part in the actor than trying to memorize his/her lines. This might lead to confusion as it has been noted in the past where actors portray lack of full awareness of their roles in acting. According to Barr (83), learning the lines of a scene is a simple process. The author advises actors that they should not, in reality, try to learn the lines since they are not imperative, but they should try and learn the significance of the scenes taking place. According to Barr (84), if an actor only memorizes his/her lines, then they will just be responsive to a cue rather than a stimulus. The harsh truth is that, if the actor only endeavors to learn his lines, then he/she will speak when they appropriate cue words are thrown at him/her, and; hence, lack connection, as well as depth. Connection and depth are the main factors, which draw viewers to a scene. They are able to relate to the scene if the actors show a connection and understanding to the scene (Barr 85). It is extremely a poor for an actor to appear as if they are being forced to act. Lack of understanding of the scenes, as well as the lines, will also portray lack of interest in the entire act. Therefore, when the actors are not connected to the scenes, the audience also will not relate to the acting. Barr stresses on this matter in the entire chapter 14 of his book whereby understanding the scene would lead to understanding the lines. If, hence, the actor relates properly to the stimulus, which causes a verbal
Sunday, August 25, 2019
An Analysis of Gish Jen's use of the American Dream in her novel Typical American - Essay Example The latter abstract phenomenon reveals the secret of American success: immolation of morals in the name of prosperity. Gish Jen's characters, Chinese immigrants, are between two cultures as between the devil and the deep sea, between familial dreams and their own thirst for self-definition, between the Old World traditions and shiny, new dreams of the New World. Chang family are perpetual outsiders, connoisseurs of the strange, sometimes mysterious aspects of the world around them and the odd, surprising ways in which race and discrimination and family history can confuse their sense of individuality. Chang family seems to be stumbling on the edge of American phenomenon, the identity crisis (Kakutani). As newcomers to America, they take this country's chance seriously, a prospect that would cause both liberating freedom and discord. Ralph is the main character, whose ideals were being changed in the process of the novel. He left for America to earn an engineering degree, but he wanted to preserve all the seeds of Chinese way of life. In his mind Ralph surely discarded all tempts available for 'typical Americans' (food, women, entertainments etc) and he thought that he would never be involved into this vicious circle. Chang family mocks at American typicality of living; they make fun of Americans, who have more freedom and liberation, and 'typicality' becomes a kind of 'plague' for them. Nevertheless in the course of time, Ralph gets married, earns his doctorate in engineering, buys his first home, has two daughtersand becomes 'typical American'. Thus it's no wonder that his ambitions need release and Ralph becomes seduced in order to reach an American Dream. Ralph thinks that in America if "you have money, you can do anything. You have no money, you are nobody. You are Chinaman!" (Gish, 66). Suddenly Ralph gets 'a shot I the arm', finds an American-born con-man Grover Ding, who disrupts the harmony of Chang family lives and unties their relationships and provokes them to become "typical Americans". This man instills Chang's gluttonous materialism, marital betrayal, and personal fraudulence. Ralph is highly motivated by Ding's ideas and launches a fast-food restaurant, called Chicken Palace, which eventually fails. Fortunately, Chang family becomes united at the end of the novel and able to restore their initial morals, principles and traditions. A struggle between values In the characters of Ralph, Theresa, and Helen, Jen shows lives of immigrants as a struggle between old-world and new-world values; between good and evil. At first the main characters sacrificed their self-identities, got lost in the New World. In the U.S. immigrants run into changes of their Old World circumscribed roles. They have a subconscious responsibility to preserve at least some
Saturday, August 24, 2019
War On Drugs - Research Paper Example As a result, approaches were put in place through legislative support from congress to enhance resource allocation to drug abuse control agencies. However, some of the approaches that have been adopted in the war on drugs have been criticized for being counterproductive and instead limiting the rehabilitation of the victims. In this paper, the war on drugs as adopted in the United States since the 70s will be discussed to demonstrate the level of commitment of the federal government in stamping out the vice. The paper wills also high some of the weaknesses of these approaches and how they have failed to eliminate this vice from the society permanently effectively. The categorization of drugs in the United States into legal and illegal has never been based on any scientific findings or study, but rather on racial stereotypes. For example, opium was the first substance to be declared an illegal drug in 1870 due to the fact that the Chinese immigrants would extensively use it. Anti-cocaine law also followed in the same direction when the south declared it illegal as a result of its preferred use among the black community. Marijuana was associated with Mexican and Latino immigrants in the early 1910s and this led to its categorization as an illegal and harmful substance (Fulkerson and Fida 60). However, the Nixon administration during the 1970s as youth rebellion, political dissent and social disorder continued to rise initiated the modern war on drugs, as we know it today. The administration associated the erosion in social fabric to continued use of such drugs by the youths and this led to the legislative decisions that were made during this period. By declaring the war on drugs, Nixon increased the number of agencies and their financial resource allocation to empower them and increase their ability to address the drug menace. Marijuana was, for the first time, placed in schedule one by the administration of Nixon, sounding a more
Friday, August 23, 2019
Singapore's cybersex laws - Research Paper Example In Singapore, internet sex is highly regulated and the law does not allow pornography and so is cybersex. However, internet has posed a challenge as the government and authorities are overwhelmed by it especially in the age of globalization. In other countries like the United States, they have adopted a soft approach where they advice the hosting websites to self regulate. Due to the growing industry of internet sex and lack of objective laws on protecting the society, most countries outside the United States have continued to suffer hopelessly. However, it is unfair to apply pornographic laws on cybersex because the two internet sex experiences have differing societal implications. In Singapore cybersex has negative implications on the family institution because it has been branded an online form of infidelity and cheating. Under the existing pornographic laws in Singapore, cybersex implications are difficult to determine if the society has to be fair. This is because while the cybe rsex industry continues to yield colossal sums of money from the business, cybersex has led to addiction, family break ups, and lack of self esteem, which are also associated with pornography. However, cybersex can be credited for reducing prostitution and hence women trafficking, which is highly associated with pornographic industry. ... All this is because Singaporean pornographic laws do not adequately define cybersex and the government needs to have legislation on cybersex, different from the existing pornographic laws. This is because unlike pornography, cybersex has positive and negative implications in the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality, given the proliferation of technology and overall globalisation
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Romanticism in Frankenstein Essay Romanticism was an intellectual movement that took hold in Europe during the late 18th century. Romanticism was born out of a direct opposition to Enlightenment views that emphasized reason, science and knowledge. The Enlightenment had evolved as a response to oppression by the church. During the Enlightenment Europeans began to question the laws of the church and state that were deemed biased and unfair. As a result to this oppression Europeans began to seek out knowledge and the philosophers of the time were seen as political thinkers and leaders. In contrast, Romanticism was a movement that opposed political norms that were the foundation of Enlightenment thinking. Romanticism placed emphasis on feelings, love, individuality and imagination to name a few. Romanticism touched all facets of art, literature and music during the late 1800s. Many writers during this time produced works that help to define the era of Romanticism by creating characters that were individualists with a keen sense of Ã¢â¬Å"self-definition and self-awarenessÃ¢â¬ (Brians). Mary Shelley is considered one of the great novelists of the Romantic period even though she is only credited with writing one novel that falls within the Romantic genre. Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein: or The Modern Prometheus, in 1818 as part of a writing competition held by Lord Byron in Geneva. It was originally published under an anonymous author and ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s name did not appear on the novel until a second edition was released in 1823. Frankenstein was ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous work and it is said that the idea for the novel came to Shelley in a dream. In her dream Shelley observes a scientist piecing together parts of mans body, only to be horrified in the end by the unnaturalness of his creation. Frankenstein is considered the first work of science fiction and also a novel that contains ideas central to the Romanticist and Gothic movements (www.egs.edu). In Frankenstein, the main protagonist Victor Frankenstein is the embodiment of ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s romanticist ideals. VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s ambition is to create a living, breathing being out of the innate materials in his laboratory. Victor reiterates his relenting passion for creating an artificial being by stating that no single person can Ã¢â¬Å"conceive the variety of feelings which bore me onwards, like a hurricane.Ã¢â¬ This statement shows that Victor wants to surpass his human limitations to create a new life form. Victor Frankenstein is considered a romantic character because he embodies the Romantic ideals of imagination and innovation. He is a dreamer, who is obsessed with impossible standards and ideals. In this sense, he embodies Romantic traits of unrelenting ambition and is therefore seen as one of the great Romantic characters. Ironically, in VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s passionate pursuit of perfection he creates a monster that is the embodiment of imperfection (Shelley). Other examples of Romantic themes in the novel appear when Shelley incorporates vivid descriptions of nature. Throughout the novel, Shelley uses lyrical language to describe the awesomeness of nature which is the backdrop of the story. ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s characters recount their inner feelings and these inner feelings often mimic the state of nature around them. For example, the barren and icy descriptions of the land in which Walton forges into and where the monster ultimately retreats to emphasize the experiences of the monster who fights against the isolation he feels as a result of his monstrous form. The barren landscape can also mirror the isolation that Walton must have felt when he foolishly travels into this cold and foreboding land in the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s opening scenes. Another example of nature mimicking feelings is the scene in which Victor awakes with much regret after creating his monster. He reflects that the morning is Ã¢â¬Å"dismal and wetÃ¢â¬ and he fears encountering the creature around every bend. Shelley keeps this common theme throughout the novel so that when the protagonist is scared or upset the weather conditions parallel what Victor is feeling or thinking (Shelley). With emphasis on nature and unrelenting passion, among many other Romantic themes in the novel, Mary Shelley allows her characters to express their deepest desires, even if those desires are seen as unattainable to the reader. These elements of descriptive nature, along with a myriad of emotions that are expressed by the characters help to solidify Frankenstein as one of the great Romantic novels of its time. Works Cited Brians, Paul. Romanticism. Romanticism. Washington State University, 11 Mar. 1998. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. Mary Shelley Biography. Mary Shelley. The European Graduate School, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013 Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft, and Maurice Hindle. Frankenstein, Or, The Modern Prometheus. London: Penguin, 2003. Print
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Famine Poverty and Famines Essay The phenomenon of famine has been widely described and analyzed in socio-political literature. The topic has been considered a controversial one in terms of its definition and its definitive features. In a recent revision of the concept of famine, Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty and Famines,Ã¢â¬ Amartya Sen retains part of classical vision on famine offered by Malthus, distinguishing Ã¢â¬Å"regular starvation,Ã¢â¬ which is a Ã¢â¬Å"normal feature in many parts of the world,Ã¢â¬ from Ã¢â¬Å"violentÃ outbursts of famine,Ã¢â¬ a Ã¢â¬Å"particularly virulent form of [starvation] causing widespread deathÃ¢â¬ (Sen, 38-39). USAID defines famine as Ã¢â¬Å"a catastrophic food crisis that results in widespread acute malnutrition and mass mortalityÃ¢â¬ (USAID, 2002).Ã Proper definition of famine matters not only in terms of labeling an event after the fact, but also in terms of how humanitarian organizations and governments respond to crises as they are happening. Maxwell points out that this is in large part because of the emotional weight the term Ã¢â¬Å"famineÃ¢â¬ has come to carry (Maxwell, 49). Humanitarian workers spent a considerable amount of time arguing about whether or not to call the 2002-2003 crisis in Ethiopia, ostensibly affecting over 13 million people, a famine. Calling it a famine would have stepped up the international response, but it might also be perceived as Ã¢â¬Å"crying wolf,Ã¢â¬ which would have a detrimental effect on organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities to obtain resources for emergency responses in the long run. Aid agencies want to avoid using the term Ã¢â¬Å"famineÃ¢â¬ too often because they worry about Ã¢â¬Å"compassion fatigueÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"donor fatigueÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â essentially that donors will be less likely to support emergency efforts if there are too many emergencies. There are also political implications for using the term Ã¢â¬Å"famine,Ã¢â¬ as can be seen in the case of the 2005 crisis in Niger, which President Mamadou Tandja insisted was a fabrication of relief agencies to obtain more funding (Sengupta, 2005). Aid agencies likewise were reluctant to apply the term famine, and referred instead to Ã¢â¬Å"pockets of severe malnutrition,Ã¢â¬ in part because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to alienate Tandja (Sengupta, 2005). The general discussion in literature indicates that number of deaths, scale, intensity and time frame were main considerations for when to call something a famine. There also is a consensus that lack of access to food had to be the main problem, to distinguish a famine from other types of humanitarian crises. For instance, the 1984/85 famine in Ethiopia was unanimously considered a famine. Iraq in the 1990s was not, mainly because Ã¢â¬Å"the time-frame was too long for a famine and many deaths were the result of a health crisis, not calorie-relatedÃ¢â¬ (IDS, 3). Ethiopia in 1999/2000 was probably a famine, but Malawi in 2002 Ã¢â¬Å"represented a famine-threat, rather than a true famineÃ¢â¬ because Ã¢â¬Å"too few people diedÃ¢â¬ (IDS, 3). In the latter case, the mortality was estimated between 500 and 3,000, and estimates were complicated by the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; thus, it was difficult to attribute deaths specifically to hunger and hunger-related diseases. WORKS CITED Institute of Development Studies. Report on Operational Definition of Famine Workshop. Sussex, UK: Institute of Development Studies, March 14, 2003 Maxwell, D. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Why do famines persist? A brief review of Ethiopia 1999-2000.Ã¢â¬ IDS Bulletin, 33 (4), 48-54, 2002 Sen, A. Poverty and famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981 Sengupta, K. Ã¢â¬Å"President Tandja: Ã¢â¬ËThe people of Niger look well fed, as you can see.Ã¢â¬ The Independent, August 10, 2005 United States Agency for International Development. USAID background paper: Famine. Washington, DC: USAID, 2002. Retrieved July 8, 2009, from http://www.usaid.gov/press/releases/2002/02fs_famine.html
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Discuss the Motivation for International Strategic Alliances Discuss the motivation for international strategic alliances ABSTRACT: To establish traditional international business in the market, businessmen do apply different strategies and one of the most common and emerging strategies that are being used now is the international strategic alliance. To study the Ã¢â¬Ëmotivation of international strategic alliance, it has been made to systematically define the term Ã¢â¬Ëmotive. This paper argues those studies of motivation of international strategic alliance, their advantages and disadvantages and how they are becoming beneficial in the global market place. This paper is an initial step to understand the definition of motivation in terms of the international strategic alliance by using the firms that have used this strategy. INTRODUCTION: An alliance can be defined as a business to business collaboration. In an alliance two or more companies agree to work together to achieve a common goal while not losing their individuality. Strategic alliance helps the both parties to gain the complementary strengths. Companies form alliances for joint marketing, joint sales or distribution, joint production, design collaboration, technology licensing and research and development. Strategic alliances have different forms, Contractual (non-equity- based) alliances (Alliances which are based on contracts and which do not involve the sharing of equity), Equity-based alliances (Strategic alliances which involves the use of equity), Cross-shareholding (Both partners invest in each other). ( Peng Mike W. Global Strategic Management, Second Edition, page 219) One form of Equity-based strategic alliances is the joint venture. The formation of the alliance is rich and fragmented. One of the main reasons behind the collaboration is to gain the competitive advantages. According to Williamson Ã¢â¬Å"Intermediate asset specificity and low uncertainty are conditions that may lead to a preference for hybrid forms of governance structure over both arms length transactions and internalizationÃ¢â¬ (Williamson, 1991). Increasing the strategic alliances is one of the fastest trends in the business today and it is becoming an essential driver to grow for every industry. One of the main goals to form a relationship with other companies is strategic alliance where they combine the skills and expertise of the both companies and gain the cooperative venture. Then they enter the international market and share their costs. MOTIVATION for STRATEGIC ALLIANCES in the INTERNATIONAL MARKET PLACE The growing international marketing is becoming the norm in this time and these partnerships are leveraging the growth through alliances with international partners, where the both companies merge and gain the competitive advantage. They do it by licensing agreements, cross shareholder deals, cooperative arrangement and joint ventures. Rather than taking risks and wasting their time and investing a huge amount on of money for gaining this competitive advantage in business, they are entering the international markets by finding an appropriate alliance which is operating in the same market in another country. So they enter the market that they desire to enter and the main reason behind this is to share the knowledge, skills and expertise and also to gain the marketing advantage in the world. And its becoming another strategy to defeat the monopoly business in the global business within fraction of time, for example collaboration of Sony and Ericson. In the view of traditional industry, firms are independent and emphasize on maximizing their own performance. As competition in the market shrinks the profits of firms, they do not rival always against one another. For instance, in 1983 Toyota and GM establish a horizontal alliance on a limited basis to accomplish different targets of manufacturing small cars in the US. The intention of Toyota was to gain knowledge of running business in the American market. On the other hand, Gms objective was to learn manufacturing small cars profitably. Sometimes high entry barriers discourage individual companies. In that circumstance companies can build strategic alliances and networks to level this fence. Firms convert the relationship with suppliers to a mutual assistance and knowledge sharing, previously which was based on hard-bargaining. This liaison is known as upstream vertical alliance. In this case companies do not consider suppliers as threats. In the same way, now, downstream vertical alliances can bind the central firms, buyers and distributors together rather than treating them as possible threats. The market potential pushes the firms on alternative products to establish strategic alliance and networks to materialize the commercial prospective of new products. According to Resource-based consideration firms can get benefited from the alliance through value creation. Ã¢â¬Å"First, alliances may reduce costs, risks and uncertainties. Second, Alliances allow firms to tap complementary assets of partners. Third, alliances facilitate opportunities to learn from partners. Finally, Ã¢â¬Å"real optionÃ¢â¬ an option is the right, but not obligation, to take some action in the future.Ã¢â¬ Real option gives the opportunity to the firms when they are not sure whether they will do acquisition or merge. The companies just need to pay a tiny portion of their assets (known as deposit). Through this temporary alliance they will judge its future profitability. If they are not satisfied, they can easily leave. There is no obligation to go on with this alliance or take further actions. Institutional based consideration includes two categories Formal Institutional based consideration and Informal Institutional based consideration. According to Peng Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic alliances and networks function within formal regulatory and legal frameworks.Ã¢â¬ In some countries, Governments impose restriction on Whole Owned Subsidiaries. In that circumstance international firms have only one option, which is, to make an alliance with a local firm in order to enter that market. Peng says Ã¢â¬Å"Informal institutions centre on collective norms supported by a normative and cognitive pillar.Ã¢â¬ When a firm decides to move on its own, it faces pressures and criticisms from peer, analysts, investors, and the media. In that situation firms make collaboration with other firms to enhance or protect its image in the market place. The firms do choose the target market they want to enter. After choosing the target market they come up with a strategic plan which will suit in the international market. They use all resources of both companies to exploit the existing resources and explore the new opportunities; the main concern for this exploitation is to increase the productivity and efficiency using the current employed capital and assets thought standards. When the both companies are big in size their integration level is also high which, vise versa, makes the higher level the degree of control. The difference between the integration and degree of control is making motivation for forming this strategic alliance. The ADVANTAGES of STRATEGIC ALLIANCE Many start-up companies do focus on emerging into the market and gaining a competitive advantage in the international market to beat the monopoly business around the world for the same products and nowadays it is becoming the most useful strategy to gain this competitive advantage. By which a firm can enter the target market faster and with less risk on the investment. Businesses use strategic alliances to: scope and speed the business process achieve advantages of scale in international market increase market penetration among other companies increase the competitiveness in domestic and global markets enhance product development by sharing the skills, knowledge, technology develop new business opportunities through new products and services and make it more competitive in the world market expand market development fast increase exports diversify create new businesses gain completive advantage in cost diversification into new markets improve cash flow Ability to move quickly The motivation of forming the international strategy varies from one country to another country. The main focuses of the join venture of the companies are to represent the companies in the various countries. But as the days passed the definition has changed because of the activities which became more prevalent. Because the international market the alliance can impart to the company in a relative advantage in size or by the size which makes the process to go faster or in other words it provides compliments to the areas which they are lacking. The motive behind increasing the international strategic alliance is not only gaining profit. The other factor which motive them are the competition among the competitors the fast changing market place industry convergence For an example an alliance between Sony (which is Japanese company, it was an electronic consumer company) Ericson (a Swedish telecommunication company) both giant companies planned to get an advantage in production and development which will prove their marketing skills. So once the joint venture is done with a legal manner it is similar in nature to a partial acquisition in consideration for shares. Because this combination has created the transaction, combining the relative advantages of both parties and ties their future together. They stopped making their own phones. They started to share their expertise and they have a research development teams in United States, Sweden, China, Japan, India, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The both companies were profitable on the first year but they had to face huge loss because of lack of investment and strategic plan. Once they have injected the money into their joint venture and came up with new idea which was to launch the built-in-digit al camera and with high features they started to enter to the market back but it still were a huge loses for them. So having the same strategic plan this joint venture did not work. They were struggling for the first three years. But walkman phones made them successful and made the 4th position in the world again. So here it proves that the giant companies do merge to gain competitive advantage but it is not always threat to the other companies which are already leading. It totally depends on the strategy they follow and implement. The DISADVANTAGES of STRATEGIC ALLAINCE Alliances are risky in term of cost, the reason is not due to cash being involved with another company and its not being in the companys hands, but it is due to returns from which they will get. First of all the company is to go throw the join venture which involves the investment. When a proper set of contracts, various transfer prices and incentive schemes from the partners to the joint alliance resolve most conflicts, most of the joint venture manages to entirely avoid conflicts between its respective parties. Managing the managerial position of both companies and resolving the possible conflict from the both parties due to the location and other factors of international market, Financial blocking is one of the major disadvantages in the international strategic alliance. Because most of the companies do not want to disclose their financing operations. For example, an alliance with SonyEricsson in the area of cellular communications could reduce the likelihood of contracts with Nokia, thereby putting the company at risk that if Ericsson is weakened, so will be all the companies that depend upon it. Alliance between competitors can be risky. Firms can access to the information, technology, business strategy, and database of each other. Therefore they acquire the knowledge of another company. One firm can plan to excel other firm by achieving the knowledge and skills of other firms business tricks. And then it can drop the other firm and may use the strategy against this firm. Strategic partners are often led by the company which is stronger in the international market. But they should come up with something unique by merging the both companies rather than starting from a start-up. But this strategy dose actually work with the every company depending on the market and company, like SonyEricsson came up with mobile when they merge but it was a huge loss in the market . They started losing their shares rather then gaining it. And it affected the job market. So they later on came up with cyber shoot which was the turning point of their company and also the walking walkman, which was different product then they used to launch. Because their main focus was to make competitive cell phone. But by the cyber shoot they have entered the market and now they are one of the giant companies with 4th position rank in the world. Sharing profits is another disadvantage. The revenue is being divided and goes to different country which does not help the country to boom up. But it dose have a great impact on it The decision is to be made by the both parties so there are always barriers for future financing opportunities. The distraction is the main disadvantage. The top level management is to take decision on behave of the both countries so they are to keep all the time in mind thinking about their own country when ever they are making decision. The both parties do not think alike because of the distraction that they are around by the competitors. As two or more companies are joint in this alliance, the decision is to be taken jointly so there is always a headache from the other partner. Because of the way they want take the company may not agree. To keep this mutual decision, the companies are to go through all this unexpected disappointments. Conclusion: The strategic alliance is one of the most implemented strategies in the global competitive market. And it is one of the mostly common used strategies which have an effect in the market to boom up the economy of a country. It has created the bond between the geographical territories. Where they can share their competitive advantages and bring out new polices and products for the consumers and increase the job market in this world. The advantages for this alliance is more then the disadvantages. So people are coming up of new policies where they can hide the disadvantages compared to the advantage. According to Pekar and Margulis Ã¢â¬Å"The fundamental purpose of an alliance is to facilitate collaboration and varying degrees of integration between companies without necessitating a merger or an acquisition, though it can often lead to a merger or acquisition. Bibliography Hill, Charles (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"International Business Competing in the Global MarketplaceÃ¢â¬ Peng Mike W. Ã¢â¬Å"Global Strategic ManagementÃ¢â¬ , Second Edition, (page 216-240) http://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/jomstd/v33y1996i3p301-332.html http://www.smallbusinessnotes.com/operating/leadership/strategicalliances.html http://www.corporate-partnering.com/info/strategic-alliances-advantages-and-disadvantages.htm http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do?contentType=ArticlehdAction=lnkhtmlcontentId=1515040 www.faqs.org/abstracts/Business-general/Strategic-motives-for-international-alliance-formation-The-limits-of-employee-involvement-profit-sha.html http://www.lotsofessays.com/essay_search/Conclusion_Strategic.html http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6VGK-4MBBYN6-1_user=10_rdoc=1_fmt=_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1123950549_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000050221_version=1_urlVersion=0_userid=10md5=52af2b0a1c7e40ab036d752257b46fc1 http://www.smallbusinessnotes.com/operating/leadership/strategicalliances.html illiamson, O.E. 1991. Strategizing, economizing, and economic organization. Strategic Management Journal, Winter Special Issue, 12: 75-94 Peng Mike WGlobal Strategic Management, Second Edition, page 213 Peng Mike W Global Strategic Management, Second Edition, page 227 Pekar Peter Jr. and. Margulis Marc S, Equity alliances take center stage: The emergence of a new corporate growth model, IVEY MANAGEMENT SERVICES Ã¢â¬ ¢ May/June 2003
Ã ¡Ã §Texts both inform us of the social identities available to us, and problematize them; both police our social selves and subvert them.Ã ¡Ã ¨ Both texts, The Crying Game by Neil Jordan and Loaded by Christos Tsiolkas, use characters within the discourse to project social identities that have been problematized due to social constraints. Throughout this essay, I will focus on sexuality, as this type of social identity has been depicted as a central theme in both texts. The characters from the texts work to, police and subvert their own sexual identities within their social milieu. Ã ¡Ã §To claim an identity as a homosexual is to claim a place in a system of social regulationÃ ¡Ã ¨ (Connell & Dowsett, 1992). I would firstly like to establish the fact that homosexuality, in its most general sense, has been argued to have been socially constructed, therefore sexuality, in this case homosexuality, has to be considered a form of social identity. I support this with FreudÃ ¡Ã ¦s theory that sexuality is a result of social processes whether it be within the family, cultural, class etc., all such processes assist in forming a particular sexual identity, Ã ¡Ã § sexualities are not received as a packageÃ ¡K.is arrived at by a highly variable and observable process of construction, not by an Ã ¡Ã ¥unfoldingÃ ¡Ã ¦ of the natural; and that social process is deeply implicated into this construction.Ã ¡Ã ¨ (Connell & Dowsett, 1992). The Crying Game and Loaded, exhibit sexual identities yet in different ways. Ã ¡Ã §Liberal HumanismÃ ¡Ã ¨ was concerned with universal humanism which tended to homogenise various types of gays and lesbians. It was Ã ¡Ã §Identity PoliticsÃ ¡Ã ¨, which was bench- marked in western countries throughout the 1960Ã ¡Ã ¦s, that appealed to Liberal Humanism and saw that everybody had a right to express themselves and their identities. It was this recognition that distinguished identities within the Ã ¡Ã §homosexual identityÃ ¡Ã ¨. The increase of sexual personae, diversified drag queens, dykes, macho gays, and from The Crying Game, transvestites. Throughout the novel Loaded, These diversities of homosexual identities were captured. The central character, Ari, repeatedly makes the distinction between these identities and refuses to be homogenised into such a broad identity, Ã ¡Ã §I hate the word gay. I hate the word homosexual.Ã ¡Ã ¨ Ari would be defined as... ...eks.Ã ¡Ã ¨ Ari admits that this is because the Greek culture is renowned for their gossip and the fact that he is gay would somehow get back to his family, Ã ¡Ã §Someone may know a friend of my parents, or know an uncle. Greeks have big mouths and word can get around.Ã ¡Ã ¨ It is this example that shows that relation between a personÃ ¡Ã ¦s sexual identity and cultural identity cannot be separated and thus form a trap. Through examples of identity, ethnicity, sexuality, gender and the body from both the film The Crying Game and the book Loaded, I have endeavoured to reveal how social conventions problematize certain identities. Focusing on sexual identities from both texts, it is seen that characters police their social selves and subvert them using their Ã ¡Ã §homosexual identityÃ ¡Ã ¨. Bibliography Ã¢â¬Å¾h Loaded, Christos Tsiolkas, 1998 Ã¢â¬Å¾h The Crying Game, Neil Jordan, 1992 Ã¢â¬Å¾h Cultural Studies and the New Humanities, Fuery & Mansfield, 1997 Ã¢â¬Å¾h Rethinking Sex, Connell & Dowsett, 1992 Ã¢â¬Å¾h Gender As Seriality: Thinking About Women as a Social Collective, Iris Marion Young, 1997 Ã¢â¬Å¾h The Internationalization of Gay and Lesbian Identities, Dennis Altman, 1998
Monday, August 19, 2019
Dark Energy: The Mystery of This Millennium Billions of years ago, the universe was nothing but an infinitesimally small particle. Then, in less time than the blink of an eye, the universe expanded and increased in size by a factor of 1050. Expansion eventually began to slow down, allowing galaxies, star clusters, and so on, to form. Theoretically, expansion should still be slowing down; but to the contrary, expansion is in fact accelerating (10). Some scientists theorize that an unknown force, called Dark Energy, may be the cause of this accelerated expansion, while others disagree. For some time, exploding stars, or supernovas, were used as a "cosmic measuring stick" (4). That is, scientists used these supernovas to calculate the age of the universe. In 1998, two groups of astronomers surveyed supernovas in very distant galaxies. These supernovas were much dimmer than expected to be, and calculations proved that the stars were over ten billion light years away, much farther away than they should be had the universe been expanding at a slowing rate, or even a constant rate, as previously theorized (5). This discovery proved that the cosmos are not expanding at a slowing or a constant rate, but instead they are expanding at an accelerated rate (4). Since this discovery, scientists have been trying to uncover what it is that accounts for this accelerated expansion. Scientists have calculated the density of the cosmos, and they have also calculated the total mass of all visible galaxies. However, the galaxies make up less than one-third of the density needed to satisfy the current calculations of the early universe (2). Simple logic tells us that there must be something else in the universe, with some kind of mass, which accounts for over two-thirds of the density of the cosmos. The new theory incorporates a different force called Dark Energy. At first, scientists did not know how Dark Energy works or what it is physically made up of. Some proposed ideas of Dark Energy are: a cosmic field associated with inflation, a low-energy field called "quintessence," and the cosmological constant, or a negative pressure, as suggested by Albert Einstein (7). In July of 2003, scientists confirmed that Dark Energy exists, but they still cannot truly explain it (6). They do know that Dark Energy is different from every other kind of energy found. Some say it is a negative gravity (1), while others say that it does not necessarily act opposite to gravity, but, instead, it acts more like a negative pressure (5).
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Shy Girl Ever since I can remember, I was naturally quiet and shy. I constantly repeated myself because people could not hear me the first time. Even then, I seldom made eye contact with others. When I entered high school, nothing changed. Soon afterward, I disliked the way my classmates thought of me. If someone had to make an announcement in class, I was not chosen; my classmates believed I was not vocal enough. If someone threw a party, I was not invited because they thought "Shy girls" would not want to come. Most of my classmates attracted a great deal of attention. No one willingly associated with me. Not only did my classmates see me as quiet and shy, but they made me start believing it, too. Ashamed, I wanted some way out. I wanted my words to stick with people. I wanted them to think, "Louisa saidÃ¢â¬ ¦." I tried participating in class more and sharing my opinions, but that did not help. Whenever I made a comment, one of two things happened: I did not get the credit for my comment, or no one took me seriously. I felt helpless. The ninth grade production of The Tempest changed my life. My teacher, Mrs. Massand, gave me a part in the play and I no longer appeared quiet and shy. Although Mrs. Massand assigned the whole class a part in the play, she appointed me as, Stephano, the drunk, a major role. Her choice surprised me and my classmates. Stephano's character seemed so unlike mine; he was loud and silly. My first thought was, "How is a quiet girl like me going to play the part of a boisterous drunk?" Until now my classmates convinced me that I was simply quiet and shy. Now the play required me to show another side of myself. We began the play by reading the text out loud and becoming comfortable with t... ...t scene, I was marching around in a circle shouting, "Ban, ban, Ca-Caliban!" At the end of the performance, the audience was bursting with cheer. Then Mrs. Massand had us individually take a bow. When it was my turn to bow, the audience gave me the standing ovation. I was never more excited. As I exited the stage, almost every classmate stopped me to say, "Wow Louisa, you were the best!" At that moment I realized I could be loud, silly, and talented. My ninth grade performance in The Tempest made my last years in high school a success; acting and reciting the words of Stephano made my growth in confidence possible. What I once thought was an everlasting label of shyness proved removable after all. My classmates saw another side to me, and I was glad that I was not labeled as a quiet and shy girl anymore. That year I came in like a lamb and went out like a lion.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËRedÃ¢â¬â¢ is a final collection by Ted Hughes in 1998 before he died. It has also engages the final death of Slyvia Plath in this piece of poetry. Ted Hughes has used Ã¢â¬ËRedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËblueÃ¢â¬â¢ to describe PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s view of life and character from the day they got married and lived in their house. In the beginning of Red, it has defines PlathÃ¢â¬â¢s favourite colour that seems to wrap her entire life and movement. In line 4, Ã¢â¬Ëblood-redÃ¢â¬â¢ may have constitute a certain image caused in life that can be related to violence or conflict inferred to Plath. Life and death signifies nothing important for her to continue life and seems to live in remembrance in her deceased family members in line 7. In the second part of the poem, Ted and Slyvia had married and she had stepped into the life of her husband. In line 2, Ã¢â¬ËOur room was red. A judgement chamberÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to how deeply in love Slyvia was to the colour that mades Ted shivers upon thinking of jurys. Everything was red from the ceiling to floor, the settings of their room was like a throbbing cell in line 9 which set his heart pounding. The only colour that can escaped from Slyvia were the bookshelves which can represent a glimpse of hope and meaning to the both of them. In line 1 to 3 of Ã¢â¬ËRedÃ¢â¬â¢ third portion, it tells us how Ted tried to runaway from the blood chamber by looking out to the windows but to no avail. He could not help himself from not thinking of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s saddening and crimson red image. He describes his feeling like blood tossing from a wound in line 5 that eventually will lead to a sense of impending doom (line 7). In the fourth paragraph, it tells readers how Ted finds his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing and sensual lips which spells blood and rawness. Ã¢â¬ËA swathe of bloodÃ¢â¬â¢ that envelopes or enfolds a hidden blood (line 1). In line 2 to 4, the way Slyvia revelled the lavish, generous red burgundy gives an imaginary picture of she was painting the town in red too. Once again, he feels the blood shimmer from the gash (line 7). From the fifth part of the poem, it depicts the gleam of hope has beenÃ splashed with blood too. In this part, those roses refer to the colour Ã¢â¬ËredÃ¢â¬â¢. Slyvia began to lose herself deeper into the helpless world of her own with occasion of optimism. Lastly, Ã¢â¬ËBlue was better for you. Blue has wingsÃ¢â¬â¢ express the kind of life Ted prefers his wife to be. The only times where she liked Ã¢â¬ËblueÃ¢â¬â¢ was when she was pregnant. He really liked her to be like an angel or guardian in the sky as the colour of blue sky. But Slyvia Plath chose to lose herself, lost her soul in the pit of red. Ted Hughes feels guilty and remorseful of her death although he may not be the entire cause of her suicide. He uses poem to convey his feelings to the readers and to Slyvia Plath.
Friday, August 16, 2019
7-2 Constant Growth Valuation Boehm Incorporated is expected to pay a $1. 50 per share dividend at the end of this year (i. e. , D1 = $1. 50). The dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 7% a year. The required rate of return on the stock, rs, is 15%. What is the value per share of BoehmÃ¢â¬â¢s stock? P = D1/(rs Ã¢â¬â g) Price = $1. 50 / (0. 15 Ã¢â¬â 0. 07) = $18. 75 7-4 Preferred Stock Valuation NickÃ¢â¬â¢s Enchiladas Incorporated has preferred stock outstanding that pays a dividend of $5 at the end of each year. The preferred sells for $50 a share. What is the stockÃ¢â¬â¢s required rate of return? Vps = Dps/Rps Vps = $5/$50 = 10% 7-5 Non-constant Growth Valuation A company currently pays a dividend of $2 per share (D0 = $2). It is estimated that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s dividend will grow at a rate of 20% per year for the next 2 years, then at a constant rate of 7% thereafter. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stock has a beta of 1. 2, the risk- free rate is 7. 5%, and the market risk premium is 4%. What is your estimate of the stockÃ¢â¬â¢s current price? Stock Return| 16. 50%| =0. 075+1. 2*(0. 115-0. 04)| Discounted| | | D1| 2. 0| =2*(1. 2)^1| 2. 06| =2. 40/(1+|0. 0165|)^1| D2| 2. 88| =2*(1. 2)^2| 2. 12| =2. 88/(1+|0. 0165|)^2| D3| 3. 08 | =2. 88*(1. 07) | | | | P2| 32. 44| =(3. 08)/(0. 0165-0. 07)| 23. 90| =32. 44/(1+|0. 0165|)^2| Stocks Current Price| | 28. 08| | | 9-2 After-Tax Cost of Debt LL IncorporatedÃ¢â¬â¢s currently outstanding 11% coupon bonds have a yield to maturity of 8%. LL believes it could issue new bonds at par that wou ld provide a similar yield to maturity. If its marginal tax rate is 35%, what is LLÃ¢â¬â¢s after-tax cost of debt? d(1 Ã¢â¬â T) = 0. 08(0. 65) = 5. 2%. 9-4 Cost of Preferred Stock with Flotation Costs Burnwood Tech plans to issue some $60 par preferred stock with a 6% dividend. A similar stock is selling on the market for $70. Burnwood must pay flotation costs of 5% of the issue price. What is the cost of the preferred stock? Ep = Dividend/ Market Price Ã¢â¬â Flotation Costs =($60*0. 06)/(($70-($70*0. 05))= 5. 41% 9-5 Cost of Equity Ã¢â¬â DCF Summerdahl ResortÃ¢â¬â¢s common stock is currently trading at $36 a share. The stock is expected to pay a dividend of $3. 0 a share at the end of the year (D1 = $3. 00), and the dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5% a year. What is its cost of common equity? P0 = $36; D1 = $3. 00; g = 5%; rs= ? rs = D1/P0+ g = ($3. 00/$36. 00) + 0. 05 = 13. 33% 9-6 Cost of EquityÃ Ã¢â¬â CAPM Booher Book Stores has a beta of 0. 8. The yield on a 3-month T-bill is 4% and the yield on a 10-year T-bond is 6%. The market risk premium is 5. 5%, and the return on an average stock in the market last year was 15%. What is the estimated cost of common equity using the CAPM? s = rRF + bi(RPM) = 0. 06 + 0. 8(0. 055) = 10. 4% 9-7 WACC Shi ImporterÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet shows $300 million in debt, $50 million in preferred stock, and $250 million in total common equity. ShiÃ¢â¬â¢s tax rate is 40%, rd = 6%, rps = 5. 8%, and rs = 12%. If Shi has a target capital structure of 30% debt, 5% preferred stock, and 65% common stock, what is its WACC? rd = 6%; T = 40%; rps = 5. 8%; rs = 12%. WACC = (wd)(rd)(1 Ã¢â¬â T) + (wps)(rps) + (wce)(rs) WACC = 0. 30(0. 06)(1-0. 40) + 0. 05(0. 058) + 0. 65(0. 12) = 9. 17%
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Introduction Long ago people viewed Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ as the inevitability of chance which occurred beyond the control of humans. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ has turned into riches, as risky ventures have become the norm in the business world. Ã¢â¬Å"RiskÃ¢â¬ therefore applies to decisions that can have a bad or good outcome. The different types of Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ can include financial, legal, ethical, information technology, or even human resource since it can exist everywhere and at any time in our lives.When we eat, we encounter the risk of food poisoning, to cross the road we run the risk of being hit by a passing motor car or even when we drive, we can increase the risk of an accident. If no risk is done then, no breakthrough can be expected. Whether it is in your career, financially, or in your business. Once you fail to take a risk then you will suffer the consequences of making significant gains, which means that you run the risk of a poss ible loss. What is Risk? According to Mortimer (2005 p. 5) Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ is any uncertainty about a future event which might threaten an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to accomplish its mission. Which means that it can be the chance of something happening that will have a negative impact on an organization. It is the possibility of suffering a loss that is loss of quality income, loss of profit, loss of success or even loss of life. It means therefore that change involves Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ , but once the set program has been attained or has achieved total success Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ vanishes.It is therefore of great importance that the management of risk be well managed. Ã¢â¬Å"Risk managementÃ¢â¬ was engineered into dealing with the possibility that some future event might cause harm. It includes strategies and techniques for recognizing and confronting treats of risk and provided an environment for proactive decision making for the proactive decision making, for the purpose of: * Ã¢â¬Å"What can go wrongÃ¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"What will we doÃ¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"How will or can it be resolvedÃ¢â¬ . Success in business to a certain degree requires owners or managers to take Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ .Most successful businesses are managed by people who know when or how to push forward and when or how to hold back, when to sell and when to stand firm. According to Yusof (2007) p. 1. Ã¢â¬Å"Risk is an undeniable reality of doing business today, whether globally or locally. Although failure is in a way linked to Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ , the successful business person should not fear Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ but strives to understand it, to manage it, or even try to take advantage of it. In that way the business person would be able to calculate the risk before taking it.Unfortunately the world of business now is exposed to more risk, such as high interest rate, inflation, recession, high exchange rates, even political and cultural risk to name a few. Therefore it takes a great deal o f expertise to effectively manage risk in business. Financial Risk Financial Risk is associated with the use of debt financing by firms or companies, since the presence of debt involves legal and mandatory obligations to make specified payments at specified time period. There is a risk that the earnings of the firm may not be sufficient to meet these obligations towards the creditors.In case of the shareholders, the financial risks occur because it is not only the mandatory nature of debt obligations but also the property of Ã¢â¬Ëprior paymentsÃ¢â¬â¢ of these obligations. In short, the use of debt by the firm causes variability of return for both creditors and shareholders. Financial risk is usually measured by the debt/equity ratio of the firm: the higher the ratio, the greater the variability of the return and the higher the financial risk. Financial risk also involves liquidity risk, maturity risk, interest rate risk and inflation risk.Liquidity refers to situations wherein i t may not be possible to dispose or sell the assets or it maybe possible to sell only at great inconvenience of cost in terms of money and time. The greater the uncertainty about true elements, price concession, and transaction cost; the greater the liquidity risk. Liquidity Risk has a different connotation from the point of view of banks and financial institutions. In this context liquidity risk refers to their inability to meet the liability towards depositors when they want to withdraw their deposits.Maturity risks arise when the term of maturity of the security happens to be longer. Since foreseeing, forecasting and envisioning the environment, conditions and situations become more and more difficult as we go more and more into the future. The longer term investment involves risk, the longer the term of maturity the greater the risk. Interest Rates Risks are the variability in the returns on security due to changes in the level of the market interest rates, or it is the loss of principal of a fixed term security due to an increase in the general level of interest rates.When interest rates raise the value or market price of the security drops or vice versa. The degree of interest rate is directly related to the length of time to maturity of the security. If the term to maturity is long then the market value of the security may fluctuate widely. Inflation Risk is the risk that the real return on security may be less than the nominal return. In case of fixed income security, since payments in term foreign dollars are fixed. The value of the payments in real term declines as the level of commodity prices increases.Inflation risk is also known as purchasing power risk as there is always a chance that the purchasing power of invested money will decline, or that the real return will decline due to inflation. Legal Risk Most legal risk arise from the possibility that a counterparty is not legally permitted or able to enter into a transaction. Legal risk is the ris k that legal actions will impair the value of investment or it may be a risk from uncertainty due to legal actions or uncertainty in the applicability or interpretation of contracts, laws or regulations.This can cause a particular problem for companies who choose to transact business with other overseas businesses. Not only are they exposed to uncertainty relating to the laws of multiple jurisdictions, but they also face uncertainty as to which jurisdiction will have authority over any particular legal issue. This risk can be reduced by the company hiring experience corporate lawyers. Ethical Risk Ethical risks concern the impact that the business has on shareholders at the local, national and global levels.In some cases these risks can influence the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s intangible assets such as the human capital, the business reputation and its clientele. Some of the factors impinging ethical risks are: * The establishment of codes of conduct * Adherence to the code * Programme t o improve performance * Good internal communication * Clearly defined mechanisms to encourage employees to respect possible violation. As the evolution of new devices in the field of information technology there is also an increased tendency for hackers to try to infiltrate companyÃ¢â¬â¢s network.The company can also face risk associated with theft or release of personal data such as employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ social security numbers and bank account numbers. A part of this risk can be reduced by installing firewall software and additional access codes. Human Resource Risk Another type of risk is human resource, this is most important within the company as companies demand skilled labours to work with the job market. Companies suffer or run the risk of hiring workers who are paid as qualified and skilled workers, when they are not.Other risks would include labour fluctuation and also a rise in the labour cost, which may result in strikes and lock-outs by trade unions and negligence. Compan ies can reduce the risk by providing incentives to the workers and also offer educational grants for workers to upgrade their careers. Political Risk Finally, the political risk can be describes as the type of risk has to do with the political decision making process within the environment for business. The lack of transparency and accountability in a political system whereby decisions which impact businesses can change dramatically due to political or social instability.The immediate resignation of the Prime Minister of Jamaica- Hon. Bruce Golding is an ideal example of political risk. Safety Risk When running a small company, every move a business owner or employee makes is a source of risk. In any case where high risk is involved, it's prudent to consult a lawyer or other professional who can advise you on how to protect your business. If an owner runs a factory or other job site that requires workers to use machinery, equipment or vehicles in the course of business, workplace sa fety is a matter of utmost importance and a key source of risk.For this reason, they must follow guidelines set by Safety & Health Administration. In addition to workplace safety concerns involving physical injury, health issues also pose a risk to some businesses, particularly medical offices and hospitals. Employees must observe strict rule and regulation to protect the public and themselves from health-related threats. Conflicts between employees are also a main source of risk for small businesses that employ workers. Risks include claims of discrimination (including sex, race, age and discrimination based on disabilities) and harassment from other employees.These issues could lead to expensive lawsuits for the business. The company must comply with rules set by government agencies like the Ministry of Labour and ensure that it follows proper procedures in all instances and with any situation involving these issues. Sources of Risk For companies that serve certain types of goods to the public, like food and skincare products, product quality is a major concern and a high source of business risk. Some products have the potential of harming the consumer if the company doesn't take proper steps to meet quality standards.Negligence involving the products of these items could lead to legal issues and damage the company's reputation Bibliography Al, M. A. (2004). Hanbook of Management 3rd Edition. London : Pearson Education . Bhole, L. (2004). Financial Institutions and Markets 4th Edition. New Delhi, India : Tata McCraw Hill. Mortimer, D. , S. Mortimer (2005) Quality and Risk Management. Cambridge University Press, London, England Yusof, Y. (2007). Managing Financial Risk. United Kingdom: Author House .
Due to the rapid changes in the working world and the business environment, organizations have been forced to transform as a way of surviving in the ever-changing business environment. According to Gardiner (2005), most organizations Have adopted projects as their means of implementing change within the organization. The adoption of a project oriented a approach, with its associated management framework, is sufficient to ensure greater success in the implementation of change within an organization. While use of best practices in project management may not guarantee success in the change of an organization, the presence of projects increases the opportunity for success. Studies have shown that, where a project manager is well equipped with the skills and knowledge of project management, projects work as the best tools for implementing change within the organization. The Concept on Project Management Project management refers to the discipline managing, planning and organizing resources to achieve successful completion of specific project objectives and goals. A project is in nature a finite endeavor, that specifies the date as to when it should begin, and the time when it should end, this is done in order to create a unique service or product that brings about added value, or beneficial change in a company. The finite character of the project is different from operations or processes of an organization, some of which may be permanent or functional work, that are used to repeated operations, with the aim of producing similar goods or services. Management of the two systems is always complex and difficult. There is therefore need to employ distinct technical skills and adopt separate philosophy of management, that would enable the implementation of the best project that can bring beneficial returns to the company. messages. Application of Project Management in Organizational Change According to Gray & Larson (2006), in the regime where implementation for change is the motto for most organizations, projects are the best vehicles for implementing change. The aspect of project management has in fact become more significant than ever. In any company that needs to change its organizational structure so as to change with the improving technology, or in order to meet the needs and wants of the consumers, projects are used as the vehicles for implementing the required change, and managing the related change. It is however important to possess the ability to sustain and build project management in order to succeed in the implementation of change. The importance of project management has been illustrated by the efforts of Swiss Re organization by using all its business operations to meet the requirements of e-business. Projects were used as the main vehicles for implementing this change. Great concern has however been expressed in the way most projects once began fail to deliver, or get stopped while they are underway. According to a research carried out by Levine (2005), most of the Information technology projects implemented were discouraging with 90% of the projects being late to deliver change in the organizations. It has been shown that, 50% of the projects are never completed at the right time, while 30% of the projects began are stopped while still underway. Project management allows the implementation of change in an organization in a more organized manner likely to realize success. The major challenge of any form of project management is to attain the objectives and goals put in place, while at the same time adhering to project constraints which are usually in the form of time factor, budget and scope. The more ambitious and secondary challenge is the optimization of integration and allocation of inputs that may be necessary to meet the goals and objectives. The success of a project management is associated with the nature the project itself. Projects involve most of the key players in an organization, both the managers and the workers at the lowest level. Projects also involve the entire organizational participation. For instance, it involves people, money, provisions, motivation, communication and space, in order to achieve the project objectives and goals. With the contribution of all these elements, an organization is able to identify and make use of the best resources as a means of attaining the best results. Gray & Larson (2006), have emphasized that the managers can easily identify the talented workers and most potential factors in the organization, and allocate them where they can give a maximum contribution towards the achievement of the company. Management of a project is often the key responsibility and province of a specific individual project manager. The manager however does not participate directly, but instead strives to maintain progress and motivate other factors involved in the process, so as to achieve the objectives. The aim of the project manager also involves striving to achieve productive mutual interaction of the active parties, in a way that the entire risk of failure is reduced. Studies have shown that, where a project manager is well equipped with the skills and knowledge of project management, projects work as the best tool for implementing change within the organization. The project manager should be well equipped with the vision and mission of the organization, so as to direct the process of the project in the right direction, failure to which the project may fail to deliver, be late to achieve its goals, or get stopped while underway due to discouragements. The project manager represents the interests of clients and has to implement, as well as determine the specific needs and requirements of the clients, based on the understanding of the organization they are representing. Gray & Larson (2006), have expressed that the capability to adopt the available internal systems of the contracting organization, and to establish close links among the nominated representatives, is an important step to ensure that the major issues of quality, time, and cost among others are attained with the main aim of client satisfaction. A successful and focused manager should be in a position to envision the whole project from the beginning to the end, and should have the skills and ability to ensure that the vision is realized in order to achieve successful change within an organization. In order to attain successful change by use of a project, there is need for the project manager to consider the three key factors that include human resources, time and finance. If an organization is in need of achieving change in the shortest time possible, there is need to employ more people and resources towards the problem. Though this may increase the cost of the project, it may be the best way of achieving an organizational change in the shortest time possible. Doing the task quicker in fact helps to reduce the cost of the project, the organization may end up spending the same amount it may have spent if it was to carry the same project in a prolonged period. Researchers have established that, there is no single way of implementing a project within an organization due to the fact that each each enterprise is unique, has different characteristics, and different financial capability. It is therefore important for the project managers to consider the features that are appropriate and important within any organization. Consideration of the important factors guide the project managers to come up with appropriate and accurate projects that can easily realize the vision of a specific organization. Cultural Factors Considered in the Implementation of project Management According to Dye & Pennypacker (1999), some of the important cultural organizational factors considered while implementing a project include the history of the previous enterprise implementations, record of failures or success of the company is looked into, as this provides an insight into what should be done to achieve success in the project. A consideration is also done on the types of operational work and projects to be managed, organizations that are able to clearly prioritize and identify their projects end up with rigorous features of a project from the initial stages to the end, unlike organizations that do not identify and prioritize their projects at the first stages of implementation. The number of departments involved within the organization are also considered. This directs the planners to consider if the project is meant to satisfy a small number of users, or whether the project should expand in the process, if other departments will be incorporate as time goes by, or whether all the departments will be involved from the begging, thus requiring the project to satisfy a large number of users from the on-set stage. The expectation and support of the senior leadership is considered as a very important factor, because their involvement drive acceptance, and appropriate expectation. This is important for the success and realization of the changes expected within the organization. The value to the end user and management is absolutely important to ensure that the change implemented through the use of the project satisfy the needs and expectations of all parties involved in the process. According to Levine (2005), organizations also consider the maturity of the desired project management discipline. The 2007 project server is often used as it contains important features for managing projects. Where an organization is considering the application of project management for the first time, it is not easy to incorporate all the capabilities at the first instance. Studies have established that, staging the first features in project management implementation help to establish both the short term and long term changes effected in an organization. Any changes that are likely to take place are considered due to the fact that, if too much changes takes place, the chances of implementation reduce, with most of the people within the organization becoming resistant to the change. Resistant to change is one of the human characteristics. Critique of Project Management Approach Researchers have however established that there still exist discomfort in the use of projects. While project management is preferred as the most efficient way of implementing change within an organization, use of too many projects may fail to deliver the desired results. Researchers have asserted that, most projects in organizations fail to deliver due to the use of poor project management practices, whose importance has been ignored by managers over a long period of time (Balogun, & Hailey, 2004). Grundy, & Brown (2002), have argued that the approach of organizational management is not effective on its own in the field of information technology, because they assume that IT solutions are developed by a technical team. The potential solution for organizations dealing with IT has been stated to be misaligned with the important characteristics of an organization like incentives or culture. Combining the management of projects in IT and organizational change management as it has been argued, cannot produce the desired results for the organizational change. Conclusion From the above analysis, studies have shown that, where a project manager is well equipped with the skills and knowledge of project management, projects work as the best tool for implementing change within the organization. Senior managers spend a lot of efforts and time promoting and formulating their strategy, but most of the time, they realize very little changes within the organization. The strategy may not yield the results expected, somehow the original goals are dissipated in the process of moving the strategy to implement the change, and the initial momentum may be lost before the anticipated benefits are achieved. Failure to implement change occurs as a result of the senior management trying to make use of the the existing structures and systems within the organization, the status quo, to change the same status quo. The adoption of a project oriented a approach with its associated management framework, is sufficient to ensure greater success in the implementation of change within an organization.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Being given to understand that there is a vacancy of above mentioned post in your reputed organization I would like to apply my candidature for the same. I request your good self to give me an opportunity to prove my capability in your esteemed organization. I assure you that I shall give my best in getting the jobs accomplished. My CV is enclosed herewith for your kind perusal. Expecting a favourable response from your end. Thanking You, Yours faithfully, Tamanna Patel To, Respected Sir/Madam, Subject: Job Application request for the position of Ã¢â¬Å"Business management faculty I am an aspirant Management Professional, done MBA in Marketing Management from ITM [Institute for Technology Management] Deemed university, Navi Mumbai with first class. I completed my graduation in B. E (Electronics communication Engineering) with first class from V. N. S. G. U. Surat. I was associated for two Major Marketing project at Pantaloon Retail India Ltd, Mumbai I would take it as a privilege, if I get a chance to associate myself with your Esteemed Organisation to give better pace to my career. As I firmly believe that this would give me Immense Exposure and a correct platform to get a glimpse of corporate world and would help me improve my personal skills and competencies. I sincerely wish to add value to the organisation with full dedication, my creativity and passion to think differently. I would be highly obliged if you consider my application and give me a chance for the same. Preferred location:-Surat, Mumbai, Ahmedabad Please refer to the attached Resume. Awaiting for your reply in anticipation. Thank you Yours truly, Alok Patel MBA (Marketing), B. E (E. C. ) [emailprotected] co. in Ph: (+91)- Mobile Number To, Sr. Manager, Commercial R/Sir, Your organization is one such organization, which operates, in a professional, dynamic and vibrant environment. Moreover I am absolutely sure that there would be extremely challenging and growth oriented career opportunities existing in your organization. All these therefore positively motivated me to explore an appropriate opening with your good self. On my part I can assure you that with my qualifications and experience accompanied with the knowledge and skill acquired during my job period, I would be able to make a meaningful and significant contribution to your organization. I am enclosing my Curriculum Vitae for your kind perusal and looking forward to an opportunity to present my skills and capabilities in person. Regards with thanks. ( Prateek Joshi ) Jamnagar, Gujarat. 9978499784 Personal Manager HRD Respected Sir Please accept this letter and other documentation as application for the position of Manager/ Sr. Engineer-Mechanical. I am quite excited about the possibilities at your esteemed organization. I hope that you will find my background to be of enough interest to interview me further regarding this position. I enclose my CV outlining my experience to date and key skill areas, which I believe are relevant to this position. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss my application with you and look forward to hear from you. Yours sincerely, Sawan Jasoliya Mr. Kimani wa Kimani P. o Box 616165225 Nairobi 00100 Tel: 070000000 kimani. [emailprotected] com Date The Human Resource Manager XYZA Company Ltd. P. o Box 616165225 Nairobi 00100 Tel: 070000000 Dear Sir/ Madam, I am writing to apply for the Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. (position) advertised in the (Source). As requested, I am enclosing a completed job application, my certification, my resume and three references. The opportunity presented in this listing is very interesting, and I believe that my strong technical experience and education will make me a very competitive candidate for this position. The key strengths that I possess for success in this position include: Ã · I have successfully Ã · I strive for continued excellence Ã · I provide exceptional contributions to customer service for all customers With a (An academic qualification like a BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s or a Diploma), I have a full understanding of the (State the purpose of the job here) excelling at new (State job area) as needed. Please see my resume for additional information on my experience. I can be reached anytime via email at kimani. [emailprotected] com or my cell phone, 07000000. Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to speaking with you about this employment opportunity. Sincerely, Full Name Date The Manager Life Live Insurance Company Uhuru Park Box 893276 Ã¢â¬â 002726 Nairobi Dear Sir/Madam I am writing to enquire whether you have any positions available within your organization. My name is John Mtu. I have completed a (State the highest academic qualification) and have enrolled to do further study at (State the next best qualification)in the area of (State the area of specialization). I am a caring and genuine individual. I am very eager to find employment within the (State the industry) and believe I would be a valuable asset to your organization. I have attached my resume for your perusal. I can be contacted at anytime on 070000000. I thank you for taking time to read my application. Yours truly, John Mtu